A Fleeting encounter with the Moken (The Sea Gypsies) in southern Thailand. พิมพ์ อีเมล
เขียนโดย Christopher Court   

COURT, CHRISTOPHER . A FLEETING ENCOUNTER WITH THE MOKEN(THE SEA GYPSIES) IN SOUTHERN THAILAND:SOME LINGUISTIC AND GENERAL NOTES. JSS. VOL.59 (pt. 1) 1971. p 83-95

 

                      A FLEETING ENCOUNTER WITH THE MOKEN
                    (THE SEA GYPSIES) IN SOUTHERN THAILAND:
                       SOME LINGUISTIC AND GENERAL NOTES

                                                          by

                                           Christopher Court

 

During   a   short   trip  (3-5 April 1970)  to  the  islands  of   King
Amphoe  Khuraburi  (formerly Koh Kho Khao)  in   Phang-nga  Province
in Southern Thailand, my curiosity was aroused by frequent references
in   conversation   with   local  inhabitants  to  a  group  of  very  primitive
people (they were likened to the Spirits  of  the  Yellow  Leaves)  whose
entire life was spent  nomadically  on  small  boats. It was obvious that
this   must  be  the  Moken  described  by  White  (1922)  and  Bernatzik
(1939,  and   Bernatzik   and   Bernatzik  1958:  13-60).  By  a  stroke  of
good fortune a boat belonging to  this  group  happened  to  come  into
the beach at Ban Pak Chok on the island of Koh  Phrah  Thong, where
I was spending the afternoon. When  I  went  to  inspect  the  craft  and
its occupants it turned out that there  were  only  women  and  children
on board, the one man among  the occupants having gone ashore  on
some errand. The  women  were  extremely  shy. Because of this, and
the failing light, and the fact  that  I  was  short  of  film, I  took  only  two
photographs, and then left the people in  peace. Later, when  the  man
returned, I interviewed  him  briefly  elsewhere (see f. n. 2) collecting  a
few items of vocabulary. From  this  interview  and  from  conversations
with the  local  residents, particularly  Mr. Prapa  Inphanthang, a  trader
who has many dealings with the Moken, I  pieced  together  something
of  the life  and  language  of  these  people. The  latter  aspect  was  of
particular   interest   to  me  as  a  linguist. This  paper  is  in  no  way  a
finished  piece  of  scientific  research, either  ethnological or linguistic,
but I offer  it  for  two  reasons. Firstly, no-one  seems  to  have  studied
the Moken of Thai  territorial  waters, and  secondly  we  seem  to  have
here,as late as 1970 and long after indications of its imminent demise
(see,  e.g.,  Le  Bar  et  al.  1964 :  264)  a  substantial  survival  of  their
indigenous culture.

 

 

 

 

 

84                                        Christopher Court

 

       I was able to subject the boat to only  a cursory  and  unpractised
examination. The  most  striking  thing  about  it  wa s the "bite" out of
the   bow  and  stern  of  the  boat, which "serves  for  front-steps  and
back-steps to the house" (White 1922 : 42 : this feature appears very
clearly in the illustrations there and in Bernatzik and  Bernatzik 1938).
Also immediately evident was the fact that the sides of the boat were
made  not of  planks  but  of  slender  shafts  of  wood. These, it  was
explained  to  me, were  shafts of the zalacca palm (mai rakam). The
roofing  was of  palm  fronds  sewn together. Amidships there was a
charcoal  stove  of  the cement bucket type common in Thailand. The
vessel  was  fitted  with an  outboard motor. But for the motor and the
fact  that  it  had  a  "modern"  stove  and  not a stone hearth, the boat
seems to correspond exactly with the description by White (1922:41-47)
and Bernatzik (Bernatzik and Bernatzik 1958 : 28). Thus  the  basis of
the  craft  was  a  hollowed  tree  trunk  with   built-up   sides (boats of
similar construction were found in the region by the Bishop of Beritus
in 1662 [Hutchinson 1933], and they are not  exclusive  to  the  Moken
[Kerr 1933) ]. The floating  household  consisted  of  a  man, his  wife
and his sister, three children and a dog.

       The   Moken   are  called   Chao   Lay / cha : w  le : / 'sea    people'
(Southern   Thai = Standard  Thai  chao  thalay/cha.: w  thale:/)by  the
local Thai population. I did not hear  the name  Chao  Nam  reported
by Seidenfaden (1967 : 113 ).1 They consist of two groups known  to
the  Thais  as  Chao  Koh  Thael  (/ cha: w k'Ͻ? thέ : / ชาวเกาะแท้ 'real
islanders') and  Thai  Mai (/thaj máj/ไทยใหม่ 'new  Thais').2  Only  the

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1)  "These people call themselves  Moken  or  Mawken, and  are  known  to  the

     Burmese as Selung, Selong  or  Selon" (Le  Bar   et al. 1964 : 263). I  did  not

     collect their own name for themselves. Related groups on the  Johore  coast

     and Singapore Island are known as Orang Laut or Ra'yat Laut by the Malays.

     The  Chao Koh  Thae man (see  below) gave  the  word for water as [wi:n ].

     This  agrees  with   the  form  of  the word in White's Lbi (1922 : 158) dialect

     spoken around Victoria Point and on  St.  Matthew's  Island. The  other  form

     of the word which I collected, viz. [e:n], is not mentioned by White.

2) The Chao Koh Thae man, whose name I did not collect, was  interviewed  at

     the home of  Mr. Prapa Inphanthang of Tambol Ban Pak  Chok  on  the  island

    of  Koh  Prah  Thong, Amphoe  Khuraburi, on  the  afternoon  of  Saturday  4

    April. The Thai Mai were  interviewed  in  their  village  of  Thung  Nang  Dam,
    Tambol Amphoe Khuraburi, on the following Sunday morning.

 

 

 

 

 

86                                         Christopher Court

 

former group now leads a  nomadic  existence, the  Thai  Mai  having
settled in one or two coastal villages, and  adopted  a  Thai  surname
(see below).

The Chao Koh Thae man informed me that  his  was  the  only
boat to come across from Koh Surin, an island about 30 miles  to  the
west in the Indian Ocean. He said that there  were  another  twelve  or
thirteen boats moored at Koh Surin. Allowing  for  two  or  three  boats
elsewhere in these waters, this would give a total of  about  fifteen  or
sixteen   boats.  With  six  or  seven  people  on  each  boat, we  could
estimate the population of this nomadic community to be in the range
of 70-110.3 As  for  the  population  of   the  Thai  Mai, the figure of 300
was given to me  by  the  Palat  Amphoe  in  charge  of   King-Amphoe
Khuraburi, Mr. Boonyock  Sanguan-Asana, who  conducted  a   survey
among these people in 1969.

The Chao Lay are more daring navigators than the local Thais
(venturing out into the ocean) and this fact is reflected in the surname
adopted  by  the Thai  Mai (see  below). A  Chao  Koh  Thae  boat  will
typically contain a man and his wife and children, and  if  they  have  a
married daughter she and her husband  may  also  live  in  the  same
boat.4 They  take  drinking  water  from  the  land  and  keep  it  in  jars,
but they bathe in sea water. They are  said  not  to  wash  the  hair  on
their   heads, so  that   their  hair  is  malodorous.  Women  frequently
expose their breasts. In the rainy season the Chao  Koh  Thae  come
ashore, build temporary dwellings with palm thatch roofs, and renew
the rakam wood in their boats, or build new boats.

The Chao Lay are said by the Thais  to  have "no  religion" but
to believe  in  spirits.5 They  do  however  have  wedding  ceremonies

_______________________________________________________

3) In the census of Burma of 1911, White's method of computing the numbers

    of the elusive Moken was to "multiply the number [of boats]  seen  [fleeing]

    or  reported  to  be  [fleeing]  anywhere, by  five. Seven  might  be  a  truer

    average" (1922 : 195).

4) This information from Mr. Prapa Inphanthang of Tambol  Ban  Pak  Chok  on

    the island of Koh  Prah  Thong. It  conflicts  with  White's  statement  (1922 :

    203-04) that young people live with the  groom's  parents  until  they  strike

    out for themselves by building their own boat.

 5) This accords with Bernatzik and Bernatzik 1938 : 36, 1958 : 30 and Bernat-

    zik 1954 : 248.

 

 

 

 

 

86                                              Christopher Court

 

with   dancing, and   it   is   said   that   they  have  ritual  fire  dances ( "like
Africans")  in   the   twelfth   lunar   month, to  bring  them  good  fishing  in
the coming year.

            The Thai Mai  represent  a  somewhat  assimilated  version of   the
Chao Koh  Thae. Living  ashore  permanently  they  bathe  in  fresh  water,
build smaller boats and attend Chao Koh Thae fire dances as spectators
rather   than   participants, although   some  might   join   in   after   a   few
drinks. Some   of    them   send   their  children  to  school. They  have  all
taken   the  surname   Klaa-Thalay   "brave   the   sea"   (กล้าทะเล),   which
consists of Thai  words but  so far  as I  know  was  an  invention  of  their
own. Some first names may still be unassimilated  and Chao  Koh  Thae
(see below).

            The   language   of   the   Chao   Lay  is  clearly  a  member  of  the
Indonesian language family.6 White  (1922)  mentions  various  dialects,
and in fact the Chao Koh  Thae  and  the  Thai  Mai  whom  I  interviewed
represented    two  different  dialects:  (see  f.n. 1  above  and   word   list
below).  The    language   has   a   strong   tendency   to   monosyllabism
through   optional   omission   of   the   first  syllable  of  disyllabic  words
(a  tendency  also  present   in  colloquial  Malay  and  many  Indonesian
dialects). Some of its  monosyllabic  words  may  not  be  of  Indonesian
origin since they appear to have a fixed tone (see below).

            My   linguistic   interviews   were  very  brief, scrappy  and  unstruc-
tured. I had about half an hour with  the  Chao  Koh  Thae  at  Pak  Chok,
and   about  an  hour  with  some  Thai  Mai  at  Ban  Thung  Nang  Dam.
Some of the words  collected  from  the  Chao  Koh  Thae  differed  from
the  corresponding   words   of  the  Thai  Mai  (see  list  below).  Unless
otherwise noted, forms cited were collected  from  Thai  Mai  informants.
Those   collected   from   the   Chao  Koh  Thae  are  marked  (CK).  The
words  are  in  rough  "field-note phonetic"  transcription, and  I  will first
give a chart of the contoids, vocoids and pitches which I noted.7

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6) It is placed in the  "family tree"  under  the  name  of  "Selung"  in  Schema 1
    of Haudricourt 1962.

7) IPA symbol conventions are followed for vocoids and contoids, except that
    a raised "h"  is  used  to  denote  aspiration,  and "j"  and  "w"  are  used  to
    denote the second, non-syllabic  part  of  diphthongs. If  pitch  is  not  noted
    it means that is was not recorded in my field  notes. Pitch  marks  have  the
    following   values :   "—"    medium    level;   " / "  high;  '' \ ''  low; " ^ " falling;
    " V " rising.

 

 

 

 

 

                A FLEETING ENCOUNTER WITH THE MOKEN                            89

 

a_fleeting__1

 

The above charts of contoids, vocoids and pitch  elements  may
not be exhaustive. Suspiciously  similar  sounds  such  as  [e]  and  [æ]
cannot from my material be demonstrated to  be  phonemically  distinct
from   one   another. Syllable  pitch   seems   to  depend  largely  on  the
position of a word in  an  utterance. Thus  most  words  were  said  with
a   falling   pitch   when   given  as  single-word answers  to  a  question.
This is a common feature in non-tonal languages such as, for example,
English. One  or  two  words,  however,  seemed  to  be   quite   fixed  in
their  pitch  patterns  under  all  circumstances, e.g., [háh]  the  negative
particle,  and    [lûan]   '(?)'   in   [ni?ûn lûan]    'young   coconut'  and   the
personal names [khǐaw (Word list:

 

 

 

 

 

88                                            Christopher Court

 

In the following word list variant transcriptions of  many  words
will   be   found. These  variations  are  reproduced  because  the  tran-
scriptions are tentative and incomplete, e.g. pitch patterns were noted
mostly   only  on  stressed  syllables, and   not   always   then.  Variant
transcriptions are of interest as a guide  to  possible  allophonic  alter-
nation, and  to  the  phonemic relevance of pitch features. Also certain
possibly systematic processes such as initial syllable elision and initial
consonant  elision  are  revealed,  cf . White. In   the  list  below   "W."
denotes the corresponding from cited   by  White. For  the  interest  of
the general reader I have appended some related words in  Malay or
Land Dayak.

 

Numerals :

one                                          sâ? (CK) sâ? (TM) (cf. Mal. sa-satu)

two                                           thúa? (CK) wǎ:? (TM) (cf. Mal. dua)

three                                        talɔj (CK) kalɔj (TM) (cf. Land Dayak taruh)

four                                          pâ : t (CK) pá : t (TM) (cf. Mal. ĕmpat)

five                                           lemá? (CK, TM) (cf. Mal. lima)

six                                            nâm (CK, TM) (cf. Mal. ĕanm)

seven                                      uɉú? (CK) duʄû? (TM) (cf. Mal. tujoh)

eight                                        wɔlᴐj (CK) waloj (TM)

nine                                         chawâj (CK) sawâj (TM)

ten                                           ch(a) póh (CK) plôh (TM) (cf. Mal. sa-puloh)

eleven                                     chapóh cét (CK ) ploh cê : t (TM)

twelve                                      chapóh thúa? (CK) ploh wá? (TM)

twenty                                      wà? plóh (TM) (cf. Mal. dua-puloh)

thirty                                         ktɔj ploh (TM) (cf. Land Dayak taruh-puru?)

forty                                          pà : t ploh (TM) (cf. Mal. ĕmpat-puloh)

fifty                                            mà?ploh(TM)(cf.Mal.lima - puloh)

sixty                                          nam ploh (cf. Mal. ěnam-puloh)

___________________________________________________________ 

8) "Not a few times have I had to correct my rough dictionary through having
    accepted, without sufficient testing, the pronunciation of a word. For
    example, chi ['I, me, my'] has almost superseded the full word cho-i. . .
    The first consonant of a word is often slurred and even dropped, so that ba
    is made to do service for mba ['bring']." 1922: (163). This is very common
    field experience.

 

 

 

 

 

                      A FLEETING ENCOUNTER WITH THE MOKEN                     89

 

seventy                                           ju? ploh (cf. Mal. tujoh-puloh)

eighty                                             wālɔj ploh

ninety                                             sawâj ploh

a hundred                                     ana: tóh (cf. Mal. sa-ratus)

a hundred and one                     ana: toh cé: t (cf. Mal. sa-ratus satu)

Other vocabulary:

afternoon                                      we:la: (cf. Thai/we:la.-/'time')

bathe                                             ?æn wî : n (CK) æ : n æ: n (TM)

be in a place                                ?æm

big                                                  da?

bird                                                 kicûm (TM)

boat                                                kabâ: ƞ (W. kabang)

buffalo                                            kɤ : bâw (cf. Mal. kerbau)

cat                                                   miaw (cf. Thai/me: w, miw/)

catch                                               ŋap (cf. Mal. tangkap)

chick                                               nâ : t manók

chicken                                           manók (TM) (cf. Mal. manok)

child                                                ʄa'ná: t, anâ: t (TM) (W. chanat)

clock                                               na: lika: (cf. Thai id.)

cloud                                               la : tâ : dè : t ŋîn

coconut                                          ni?ûn (TM) (cf. Mal. nyior)

curry, hot (spicy)                           chaw baj pədeh (cf. Mal. pědeh, pedas)

day                                                  a'lɔj (W. aloi) (cf. Mal. hari)

dog                                                 ?ɔ? (TM)

drink                                                ʃam (CK) ?am (TM)

duck                                                a'da :

eat                                                   ʃam (CK, TM) ?am (TM) ŋam cô:n (CK, TM)

far                                                    na:nót(TM)
female human being minaj (TM) (W. binai)

fire                                                   pûj (TM) (cf. Mal. api, Land Dayak epuy)

fish                                                  ka:n, eka:n e:ka:n (TM) (cf. Mal. ikan)

flower                                              dɔ: k buŋa? (TM) (cf. Thai dɔ: k'flower'

          Mal. bunga id.)

food                                                 co: n (CK)

foot                                                   ka: kâj (cf. Mal. Kaki)

 

 

 

 

 

90                                               Christopher Court

 

go                                      kaw (TM) (W. lakow)

hand                                 ŋan (TM) (cf. Mal. tangan)

have                                  nă?

he                                      ?a:câw

house                               mâ: k, omâ : k (TM) (cf. Mal. rumah)

hot (spicy)                        padeh (cf. Mal. pědeh 'to sting')

human being                  manût (cf. Thai manút, Mai. manusia)

I, me, my                          jî :, cî : (TM) (cf. Mal. aku) ( W. cho-i, chi)

leaf                                   du?ôn ?ew (cf. Mal. daun pokok)

left hand                          kae : lôj (cf. Mal. kiri)

little (not much)              habît (cf. Mal. habis 'finished')

long                                  bu: chûj la: ták

male human being       ka : nâj

moon                               bu: lân (cf. Mal. bulan)

morning                           kichâw (TM)

much                                dahûn

near                                  nanì:?(TM)

night                                 ka'mân

no                                      há?

not                                     háh (CK, TM)

not                                     have pin hâ?

palm thatch                     ka: 'jân (cf. Mal. kajang)

pig                                     babûj (cf. Mal. babi)

question                           tag ka? (CK, TM) kâh (TM) (cf. Mal. kah)

right hand                         wa : nân (cf. Mal. kanan)

sea                                    ?âw, ka?âw (TM) ta?âw (W. t'aw)

shirt                                   baʄî: (TM) (cf. Mal. baju)

short                                  bu : chûj balûj

sky                                     e: m(a)' ta: mî?

small                                 bu : chûj

sun                                     ta?lôj (cf. Mal. (ma) ta-(ha) ri)

that                                     kî :

this                                     ni:, lârj (?) (cf. Mal. ini, That/ni:/)

today                                  a'lĉj nî: (TM) (Mal. hari ini)

tomorrow                           khi : chá : w (TM) (W. chichow) (cf. Thai/chá : w/

'morning')

 

 

 

 

 

                   A FLEETING ENCOUNTER WITH THE MOKEN                    91

 

tree                                   ?ew (classifier pokon) (probably same as ka?ew

'wood' q.v.) (cf. Mal. pokok kayu)

trousers                           na: phlôw, ka: kîŋ (TM) (cf. Thai/kaŋke: ŋ/)

water, juice                      wȋ : n (CK) e : n~enn (TM) (cf. Mal. ayer)

wood                                ka?ew (TM) (cf. Mal. kayu)

year                                   takôn (TM) (cf. Mal. lahun)

yesterday                         IY : j but ( W. bubut)

yon                                    tûp

you                                    bi?eŋ (TM) (W. bi-ing)

young coconut                ni?ûn lûaŋ

Other words :

Numeral classifiers accompanying nouns :
lûj                                      for people

poh                                   for birds

lam                                   for boats (cf. Thai/lam/ 'idem')

pokôn                               for trees (cf. Mal. pokok, pohon)

 

Personal names :

male - th+?; khǐaw; mé?; tÚ?; mâ?in;
female - nân; bîŋ; tû:; nā:n.

 

Grammatical notes:

The sentence :

Order of constituents:

Subject + Verb +Object

ci:                          ŋam                    eka: n                      'I eat fish'

I                             eat                       fish

(Omitted subject) + Verb + Object

kaw                      nâp                        ka:n                        'Go and catch fish'

go                        catch                      fish

?am                      en                          ni?ûn lûaŋ             'Drink the

 drink                 water                        coconut                  milk of a young coconut'

 

 

 

 

 


 


92                                                Christopher Court

 

Questions :

(Omitted subj.) + Verb + Q. part.

                                kaw     kâh             Are you going?

                                go        Q.

Absolute Subj.                  + Subj.                + Verb               + Q. Part,
omâk bi?eŋ                   kɚbaw                na?                    kah     'Are there any

           buffaloes

house you                     buffalo                exist                  Q.         at your house?'

Noun phrase:
Noun + Noun

nâ:t                      manók                     'a chick'

child fowl

Noun + Pronoun

omâk                   bi?eŋ                       'your house'

house you

Noun + Det.

alâj                       ni:                            'today'
day                       this

Noun + Numeral + Classifier

manút         wà?          lûj            'two people'

human        two          class.

being

kicum          kloj          poh          'three birds'

bird              three       class.

ew                wa?        pokon       'two trees

tree two class.

Noun + Adjective

en               dahûn      'much water'

water          much

en               habít          'little water'

water          little

Verb Phrase :
Verb + Object

ŋam           eka: n        'eat fish'
eat              fish

 

 

 

 

 

A FLEETING ENCOUNTER WITH THE MOKEN                 93

 

ŋáp            eka:n          'catch fish'
catch         fish

Verb + Verb + Object

kaw            ŋáp          ka:n        'go and catch fish'
go              catch        fish

Position of the negative in the verb phrase :
(Omitted subject) + Verb + Negative

                                     kaw    háh             'I'm not going'

                                      go       not

 Subject + Verb + Negative + Object

ci:              nam     hâh            eka:n        'I'm not eating fish'

I                 eat        not             fish

    Typologically interesting features :

  1. The position of  the  negative  particle  in  the  verb  phrase.

  2. The aspirate series: [thua?] vs. Mai. dua, [buchuj baluj] 'short',
    etc.Possibly the presence of aspirates points to Sumatran
    affinities.

  3. The absence of [r]: [alɔj] vs. Mai.  hari 'day', [anatoh] vs. Mai.
    ratus 'hundred', [kæ: 'lɔj] vs. Mai.  kiri 'left', [en, wi: n] vs. Mal.
    ayer 'water'. This loss of [r] could be due to That or Burmese
    influence.

  4. The final diphthongs where  Malay has -i, e.g. [a'lɔj] vs. Mai.
    hari 'day', [puj] vs. Mal. api   'fire', matai (from White) vs. Mai.
    mati 'dead', [kae: 'lɔj]   vs. Mal. kiri 'left', [ka: kaj] vs. Mal. kaki
    'foot', [babuj] vs. Mal. babi 'pig', kamo-i (from White) vs. Mai.
    kami 'we', [minaj], binai (from  White) vs. Mai. bini  'woman'.

  5. The   elision   of   initial   syllables:  [ka:n]  vs . [e:ka:n]  'fish',
    [ma:k]   vs.  [o'ma:k]  'house', [aw]   vs. [ka?aw], [ta?aw] 'sea',
    [ta?bj] vs. Mal. (ma) ta-(ha) ri 'sun', [nan] vs. Mai. tangan 'hand',
    [ew] vs. [ka?ew] 'wood'.

  6. The elision of initial consonants: [ufu?] vs.  [duɉu?]   'seven',
    [?am]   vs.   [nam] 'eat',  'drink',  [a'na : t]  vs.  [fa'na : t]  'child'.

  7. The fixed pitch patterns of certain words: e.g. [lŭan ] in [ni?un luan]

                              'young coconut' and [năn, biŋ, and nā: ŋ] (personal names).

 

 

 

 

 

94                                        Christopher Court

 

Whether  they   represent  "original   primitivism"  or  have  for-
saken land life and lapsed into "secondary primitivism" in flight  from
populations  invading  or  harassing  their  original  homeland,9 it   is
obvious that the Moken of Southern Thailand deserve more attention
from ethnologists10 and linguists  before  they  die out or  assimilate
completely. Much   second-hand   information  about  the  Chao  Koh
Thae can be gathered from residents of Ban Pak Chok. The Thai Mai
of Ban Thung Nang Dam speak  a  Moken  dialect, so  that  linguistic
work can be done without depending on a chance encounter  with  a
Moken   boat.  Attempts  should  be  made  to  locate  White's  Moken-
English and English-Moken dictionaries, Introduction to the Mawken
Language,
11 Gospel of St. Mark in Moken and other booklets on  the
Moken language.Of  his Moken  dictionaries, White  says : "Probably
there are about two thousand words recorded, and whole  areas  of
language are unexplored — areas which I know to exist" (1922: 154).
In 1846 a Primer of the Selong Language was published by the American
Baptist  Mission  Press, which  was  then  in  Moulmein (White 1922: 132).
The  edition,  so White  was  told, numbered  two  hundred, of  which
White was able early this century to find only one copy,for inspection.
Even if all these works are lost, much more than they contained  can
still be gathered at first hand, if someone can only address  himself
to the task.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                              _________________________________________________________

                             9)  See Bernatzik 1954 : 248, White 1922 : 126

                            10) The pages of Bernatzik and white can scarcely be said to provide a com-

                                   plete ethnograpy. In the list of referrences below I  have  inclided  every-

                                   thing that I know of wich Bernatzik has written on this subject.

                            11) Published in 1911. A number of copies were taken by the British Govern-

                                   ment of Burma to help defray printing costs

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                A FLEETING ENCOUNTER WITH THE MOKEN                          95

 

                                                                                       REFERENCES


Bernatzik, Hugo Adolf.   1939.   "The     Colonization   of    Primitive     Peoples
with Special Consideration of the Problem of the Selung" (translated
with footnotes by H.H. Prince Devawongs Varodaya). Journal   of  the
Siam Society
31 : 1 : 17-28.

bernatzik, Hugo Adolf. 1954. "Hinterindien", in Die Neue Grosse Vӧlkerkunde :
Volker  und  Kulturen  der  Erde  in  Wort  und  Bild.  Band  
II  ed.  H.A.
Bernatzik,  229-278.  Frankfurt/Main: Herkul  G.M.B.H., Verlagsanstalt.

bernatzik, Hugo   Adolf   and   Emmy. 1938.  Die   Geister  der  gelben  Blätter.
Munchen : Verlag F. Bruckmann.

bernatzik, Hugo Adolf and Emmy. 1958. The   Spirits   of   the  Yellow  Leaves.
(translation by E.W. Dickes of 1951 edition of Bernatzik and Bernatzik
1938). London : Robert Hale Limited.

Haudricourt, André G.     1962.   Commentary   on   Capell,   Arthur.   "Oceanic
Linguistics Today", in Current Anthropology 3 : 4 : 410.

Hutchinson, E.  1933.   "Journey   of   Mgr  Lambert, Bishop  of  Beritus,   from
Tenasserim  to  Siam  in  1662". Journal  of  The  Siam  Society  26:2:
215-218.

Kerr, A. 1933. "Notes    on   a    Trip     from   Prachuap  (Kaw Lak)   to   Mergui".
Journal of The Siam Society 26 : 2 : 203-214

le bar, Frank  M. et al. 1964. Ethnic    Groups   of    Mainland   Southeast   Asia.
New Haven : Human Relations Area Files Press.

seidenFaden,  Major  Erik.  1967. The  Thai  Peoples. Book 1. Bangkok :  The
Siam Society.

white, Walter Grainge. 1922. The Sea Gypsies of Malaya : an  Account  of   the
Nomadic Mawken People of the Mergui Archipelago.
London : Seeley,
Service and Co. Limited.


 



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