The Testimony of an Inhabitant of the city of AVA พิมพ์ อีเมล
เขียนโดย Phra Vhraison Salarak,Thien Subindu   

 PHRAISON SALARAK, PHRA. THE TESTIMONY OF AN INHABITANT OF THE CITY OF AVA. JSS. VOL.45 (pt.2) 1957. p.29-54.

 

 

 

           THE TESTIMONY OF AN INHABITANT OF THE CITY OF AVA

                                                  Translated by

                                         Phra Vhraison Salarak,

                                Thien Subindu ( U Aung Thien )

                                                     Preface

It has been the custom from ancient times, when the govern-
ment of one country lays its hands on a   foreigner  who  knows  the
affairs of his country, and, when it is to the advantage of  the  govern-
ment to know such affairs, to question the  foreigner  and  put  down
his answers in the form of depositions.

During the wars between the Siamese and the Burmese, the
practice of taking depositions assumed great importance, because it
was the means of getting information about the physical  features  of
the enemy's country, its strength, its history,  customs  and  usages.
When the Siamese  captured  a  Burmese  prisoner  of  war, he  was
questioned about Burma and his statements were noted down. There
are many such statements in manuscripts in the Vajirañāna National
Library, but it has been impracticable to publish most of them.

The name of the Burmese general who made the deposition
that   follows   here   is   generally   known  in  Siamese  history  as
Arprakarmani,  or    Dharprakharmani.  He    is   sometimes   called
Myowun or Bo Myonguam. Myowun is a Burmese honorific  title  for
a governer of a town or city, and Bo Myonguam is the title  given  to
a governer of a town who is  also  a  military  general. The  Burmese
word Bo is similar to the old Siamese usage of Chow Khun or Chow
Khun Me-tab (Chow Khun, the general).

The account of Arprakarmani as given in Siamese history is
that he was a nobleman who lived in the city of Ava. In  the  year  of
the horse, the 4th  of  the decade, Chula  Sakkaraj  1124,  Buddhist
Era 2305,  during  the  reign  of  His  Majesty  Somdet  Phra  Chow
Suriyamarinton   at   Ayudhya, the  Burmese  King  Mang  (Maung)
Lawk (Naungdawgyi), who was  a  son  of  Minlaung  ascended  the

 

 

 

 

 

30                                       Phra Phraison Salarak

 

throne. He ordered Taing-gya-min-gaung, Min  Maha  Nawarata, and
Arprakarmani to lead  a  force  of  Barmans  and  invade  Chiengmai,
which, at that time, was probably an  independent  city. When  they
captured Chiengmai,  the  King of  Ava  appointed  Arprakarmani  as
Myowun   to  conduct  the  administrative  affairs  of  the  city. From
that time onward,  whenever  the  Burmese  invaded  Siam, Arprakar-
mani was chosen as the general to lead the Chiengmai contingent in
the invasion. After  Dhonburi  was  chosen  as  the  capital  of  Siam,
King Somdet Phra Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, who was  at  that  time
still holding the title of Chow Phy a Chakri, commanded an expedition
to invade Chiengmai, in  the  year  of  the  horse,  the  sixth  decade,
Chula Sakkaraj 1136, Buddhist Era  2317. The  Burmese  appointed
Phya Chaban and Phya Kawila, leaders of the  people of  Chiengmai,
to command a force to  resist  the  army  of  the  King  of   Dhonburi.
They, however,went over to His Majesty Somdet Phra Buddha Yodfa
Chulaloke, joined the Siamese forces, and  marched  on  Chiengmai.
The Siamese  attacked  and  captured  the  city.  Arprakarmani  and
the Burmese forces withdrew, and established themselves at Maung
Chiengsen. They continued to molest the towns and  villages  in  the
north, up unto the time of the first king  of  the  city  of  Ratanakosin
(Bangkok). In the  year  of  the  goat, 9th  decade,  Chula  Sakkaraj
1149, Buddhist Era 2330, His  Majesty  King  of  Ava  Badon ( King
Bodawpaya) sent reinforcements to Arprakarmani to enable  him  to
attack Maung Fang in Monton  Payab.  But  the  people  of  Monton
Payab were on the side of the Siamese, and when the forces  under
Arprakarmani tried to collect the men  there,  they  all  fled  into  the
surrounding countryside. When the  reinforcements  sent  from  Ava
arrived and established themselves in Maung  Fang,  the  people  of
Maung Chiengsen, led by Phya Pre (Mang Chai),  Phya  Yong  and
Phya Chiengrai, found a favourable moment to attack the  Burmese
forces. They captured Arprakarmani and sent him  to  His  Majesty
King Somdet Phra Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke at Ayudhya, where the
Burmese general's deposition was taken.

How extensive the deposition was is not known. The Royal
Library received only the part in  which  Arprakarmani  spoke  about

 

 

 

 

 

            THE TESTIMONY OF AN INHABITANT OF THE CITY OF AVA           31

 

Burmese history. Nor it is known who composed the deposition. The
Siamese language used in it is very good and  was  praised  by  His
Majesty King Somdet Phra Chom Klao  (King Mongkut, or Rama IV)
in his own handwriting. His Majesty  also  wrote  the  following  note,
which was appended to a copy of the deposition:

"This  book  (in manuscript form)  is  an  old  copy; it  is  not
known who composed it, but it  must  have  been  written  during  the
reign of King Somdet Phra Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, using  correctly
the words ... (here follows a list of Siamese words which are different
from the modern usage  and  whic  will  not  be of  interest  to  those
who do  not  know  Siamese. Trans). The script  department  should
make a copy of it as an example  before  returning  it  to   the  Royal
Library. This copy is not the original one  but  a   copy  made  during
the reign of King Somdet Phra Nang Klao."

 

 

 

 

 

 

Damrong Rajanubhab

Vajirañāna National Library
May 1st, Buddhist Era 2458

 

 

 

 

 

       THE TESTIMONY OF AN INHABITANT OF THE CITY OF AVA

 

I, the Myowun, respectfully beg permission to  make  this
statement, as far as I can remember, for submission to His Majesty,
of history during the time the sons of the solar race ruled  the  city
of Ratanapura  Ava. In  the  year  Sakkaraj  1099,  the  country  of
Hongsawadi was under the rule  of  Ava. The  king  of  Ratanapura
Ava appointed Sa Aung (Burmese, Maung  Tha  Aung)  to  be  the
governor of the city, Hongsawadi, and Nai Seng Mu, who belonged
to the elephant department, to be assistant governor  in  charge of
provisions. The people of Hongsawadi were fond of  Nai  Seng  Mu,
and he thought of revolt, captured Nai Sa Aung, and murdered him.

Nai Seng Mu then  became  the  governor  of  the  city  of
Hongsawadi. He made a younger brother  of  his  Uparajā  in  com-
mand of the boat forces and sent him up to attack the city  of  Ava.
Another   younger  brother  of   his,  whom  he  had  appointed  the
governor of Dala, was placed in command of the land forces  to  go
up to Ava and attack it at the same time. They  laid  siege  to  Ava
for three years  and  captured  it  in  Sakkaraj  1114.  The  Uparajā
then seized the king of Ava  and  the  royal  family, and  proceeded
with them to Hongsawadi, leaving behind the governor of  Dala  and
Talaban  in  Ava  to  administer  the  affairs  of  the  country. These
two became aware that  (Maung)  Aung  Zeya,  the  Miulaung, was
collecting a force of four or five thousand men from fourteen villages.

Maung Aung  Zeya  brought  up  toddy  palm  trunks  and
constructed a fort at Môksobo. The governor of Dala  and  Talaban
sent a force of 1,500 men under the command of a petty  officer to
make a reconnaissance. They found the Minlaung  resting  at  the
village of Boksod, only 800 wahs (a Siamese measure of length; one
wah is approximately 2 metres. Trans.) from Môksobo. There  was
a   fight; the  Mons  were  worsted  and  retired  to  Ava. Then  the
governor of Dala sent Katoke Wun Tawtawkala Bo with a  force  of
20,000 men, consisting of about 5,000 Mons and 15,000 Burmans,
with  Talaban  as  commander-in-chief, to  surround  Môksobo  for
fifteen days. The Mon forces  were  short  of  provisions  and  they

 

 

 

 

 

          THE TESTIMONY OF AN INHABITANT OF THE CITY OF AVA          33



suffered greatly, killing buffaloes and bullocks and eating their flesh
as their only food. The Minlaung went  out  and  attacked  the  Mon
forces, who were worsted in the fight and  fled  to  the  city  of  Ava.
The forces under the  Minlaung  pursued  the  Mons  from  morning
till midday, and obtained many arms and much ammunition.

The governor of Dala ordered Talaban  and  Amat  Katoke
Wun Tawlaw Kala Bo to remain in Ava with a force of 5,000  Mons
and 5,000 Burmans in order to guard the  city,  while   he  himself
went back to Hongsawadi, taking with him his family  as   well  as
many guns,  both  large  and  small. The  distance  by  river  from
Ava to Hongsawadi was a ten days' journey.

The  Minlaung   sent  Minhla  Mingaung  with  a  force  of  1,500
men in one  direction, and  Thaynat Wun with a force of 1,500 men
in another, to levy men  in  fourteen  towns  in  the  district  of  Ava.
The men in  these  towns came in, contributing about 1,000, 2,000,
3,000, 4,000, and 5,000 men  according to the  size  of   the  town.
The two commanders gathered together in all about  20,000   men
from the towns  in  the  district. From  the  twenty   villages  round
about Ava not far from Môksobo at a distance of one to three days'
journey, they collected about 10,000 men, the villages contributing
from 100 to 1,000 men according to their size. They collected thus
about 30,000 men in both the towns and the villages over a  period
of 15 days.  When  all  the  men  arrived  at  Môksobo,  they  were
ordered  to  proceed  at  once  to  the siege of the city of  Ava. The
Minlaung sent Thenabadi, Min Hla Minguang and Senneng Bo with
a force of 10,000 men in advance. Min Maha  Thaynabadi  Thaynat
Wun was commander-in-chief of  the  main  force  of  20,000  men.
Maung Ra, a son of Minlaung, was supreme commander of all  the
forces proceeding to the siege of the city of Ava.

The fighting around the city  of  Ava  lasted  for  five  days.
Talaban's forces were defeated, but he was able to leave the  city
and he established himself in the town of Pray (Burmese, Prome),
below Ava at a distance of seven nights by  river. Maung  Ra  was
ordered by his father, the Minlaung, to remain in command at Ava.


 

 

 


 

34                                     Phra Phraison Salarak

 

In the year of Sakkaraj 1115, in the  fifth  month (April), the
governor of Hongsawadi ordered his younger brother, the  Uprajā, in
command, with Talaban and Katuk Wun Tawtaw Kalabo, to take an
advance force and to go up by land  and  river  to  lay  siege  to  the
city of Ava. Maung Ra hurriedly sent  a  letter  by  a  messenger  to
his father, the Minluang, saying that many Mon  forces  had  arrived
before Ava. Aung  Zeya,  the  Minlaung,  thereupon  sent  forces  to
assist him and attack the Mons. The east flank of the advance force of
2,000 men was under the command of  Min  Hla  Ngè.  The  Prince
of Toungoo, a younger brother of Minlaung, was in  command  of  a
force of 1,000 men on the east  flank. The  journey  from  Môksobo
to Ava took two nights and three days by boat. On  the  river  there
were 150 boats, of all sizes, complete with guns, large  and  small,
and other weapons of war, with gunpowder. The  Minlaung  ordered
Mayola Wutmatrar Bo in a command  with  a  force  of  2,500  men
in 80 boats as an advance river force. Agga Maha Thaynabodi  Thaynut
Wun was placed in command of a force of 1500 men in 70 boats which
was ordered to go down by river  from  Môksobo. At  that  time, the
land and river forces on the west and  east  of  the  city  comprised
10,000 men and 150 boats. Upon arriving at the village  of  Chockyong,
which was 800 wahs distant  from  Môksobo, they met  a  force  of
Mons 10,000 strong and about 100 boats commanded by Mons of  the
rank of Smings. There was a fight with the Burmese forces on both the
land and the water, which caused a delay of fifteen days.The forces
in boats under the  overall  command  of  Amat  Talaban  could  not
stand against the Burmese attack and fled to the siege of  Ava. The
Burmese forces pursued and attacked the Mon forces. In  the  year
Sakkaraj 1116, on the 15th of the. waxing moon of  the  6th  month
(May), the Uparajā, the Sming Mons and several commanders who
had surrounded the city of Ava gave up  the  siege,  retreated,  and
established themselves at the town of Pray.

In the year Sakkaraj 1116, on the 10th of the waning moon
of the 6th month (May), in the afternoon, there was a great rain and
electrical storm. Lightning struck sixteen times at  different  places
in the city of Môksobo, namely, (1) the post  to  which  the  planks

 

 

 

 

 

          THE TESTIMONY OF AN INHABITANT OF THE CITY OF AVA           35

 

written in gold letters giving the name of the city was fixed; (2)  at a
post by the side of Benchaphat hall; (3) at a post at the door of the
palace; (4) at a Khè tree in the palace enclosure; (5) at the  portico
of the palace; (6) at the central hall in the palace; (7) at a post in a
house or a place of residence of priests; (8) at a pagoda; (9) at  an
elephant shed by the side of the gate  of  the  hall  built  of  sandal
wood; (10) at a post in the door of the city; (11) at a pond in the palace
enclosure; (12) at a house in the city; (15)at a Makhampom tree in
the city; (16) at a plank written in gold letters right  in  front  of  the
door of the palace.

On   the   first  of  the  waxing  moon  of  the  twelfth month
(November), Minlaung assembled his  ministers,  soothsayers, brah-
mans and learned men and asked those who had seen the lightning
strike in the city of Môksobo  sixteen  times  in  one  day, from  the
afternoon   to  evening,  what  it  portended.  The  soothsayers, brah-
mans and  learned  men  prophesied  that  the  Minlaung  would  be
replete with power and that he would overcome his  enemies  at  the
city of Ava where they would  certainly  be  defeated. The  Minlaung
said that if such were the case,in the year Sakkaraj 1116 on the 3rd
waxing  moon  of  the  7th  month  (June), he  would  march  with  a
force of 30,000 men, who were in Môksobo and  Ava, both  by  land
and   by   river. He  ordered  his  son, Maung  Ra, to  command  the
advance  forces, and  he   himself  commanded  the  main  army. In
that year, on  the  12th of  the waning moon of the 7th month (June),
he proceeded to Hongsawadi, ordering  his  son, Maung  Ra, to  go
ahead with an advance force.

From that  time, for  a  period  of  one y ear,  the  Burmese
forces were fighting the Mon forces under the Uparajā, the  younger
brother of the governor  of  Hongsawadi  at  the  town  of  Pray. The
Mons under the Uparajā and the Smings were defeated and retreated
to the town of  Rangoon  (Siamese,  Yangkung). The  forces  under
Minlaung    remained   at   the   town  of   Pray, while  those  under
Maung  Ra,  which  formed  the  advance  force, pursued  the  Mon
forces up to Rangoon during the waning moon  of  the  12th  month
(November). In    the    year   Sakkaraj   1117, on   the  5th  of   the

 

 

 

 

 

 

36                                    Phra Phraison Salarak

 

waning moon of the 6th month (May), the Uparajā and the Sming
Mon forces suffered a defeat at the hands of the Burmese  forces;
they retreated from Rangoon and established themselves at the town
of Syriam (Siamese, Siang). Minlaung brought down his forces  to
the town of Rangoon and stayed there for a year. He then ordered
his son, Maung Ra, who was in command of advance forces, to  take
command of the main forces, and appointed him to the chief com-
mand of the combined forces with Thaynabodi Thaynat Wun, Min-
hla Min Gaung, and other commanders. Maung Ra  attacked  the
town of Syriam in the waning moon of the 7th  month  (June)  and
captured the town in  the  11th  month  (October).  Minlaung  and
the army assembled in the  town  and  left  it  together. Minlaung
built a new town at a place called Zetuwadi, distant from the  city
of Hongsawadi 50 sens (a Siamese measure of length;  a sen  is
equal to 20 wahs or 40 metres. Trans.).

The governor of Hongsawadi sent the senior Amats bearing
presents to interview Minlaung and discuss  peace  terms. He  pro-
mised to give to Minlaung  one  of  his  daughters.  Minlaung  then
issued orders to the commanders of his army to defer  the  attack
on the town of Pegu (Siamese, Pago). In the year  Sakkaraj  1118,
the 5th of the waxing moon of the 4th month (March), the governor
of Hongsawadi presented his daughter of 17 years of  age  to  Min-
laung. The Uparajā and the governor of Dala, who were Minlaung's
younger brothers, and Talaban,  who  was  his  nephew, were  not
pleased. "Why should  a  daughter  be  given  to  Minlaung?" they
asked. "If the governor  of  Hongsawadi  wants  to  be  a  slave  of
Minlaung, let him. But we together with  all  the  Thaynabodi  and
the populace will fight to the death to save the city." The governor
of Hongsawadi  then said, "If  the  Uparajā, the  governor of  Dala,
and Talaban will not yield the city  to  be  a  dependency  of  Min-
laung, let it be  with  the  loss  of  a  daughter." The  governor  of
Hongsawadi then let it  be  known  that  he  would  fight  against
Minlaung's army. Minlaung said to his commanders. "The governor
of Hongsawadi breaks  his  faith  and  will  fight  against  us." He
immediately ordered his commanders to  surround the  city. The

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

        THE TESTIMONY OF AN INHABITANT OF THE CITY OF AVA          37

 

people of  the  city  favoured  Minlaung. They  ignited  inflammable
material in the city and threw ropes over the walls to the  Burmese
forces   who   were  thereby  able  to  capture  it. The  governor  of
Hongsawadi, the Uparajā, Phaya Dala, and all the  ministers  were
seized   that  night.  In  Sakkaraj  1119,  in  the  8th  month  (July),
Minlaung returned to Môksobo,  taking  with  him  the  governor  of
Hongsawadi, his  family  and  relatives  and  his  other  belongings,
such   as  his  decorations. In  Môksobo, Minlaung  permitted  the
governor of Hongsawadi, his family and relations and his ministers
to live in comfort.

In the year of Sakkaraj 1121, on the 10th of the waning moon
of the 3rd month (February), Minlaung  ordered his son, Maung Ra,
to levy a force of 20,000 men  with a minister (Siamese, Amat)  by
the name of Minhla Yaza, and  Minhla Mingaung  and  proceed  to
Ayuthia (Siamese, Krung  Dwarawadi Sri Ayudhya) as an advance
force. Minlaung himself was  in command of  the  main  army  con-
sisting of 30,000 men; in  all there were 50,000 men, including the
advance forces and  his own. They  reached  Prome  on  the  15th
of the waxing moon of the 4th month (March).It was then the rainy
season and Minlaung rested there. He ordered his son,Maung Ra,
to remain with his forces and  ordered  Minhla  Yaza  and  Minhla
Mingaung, with a force of 20,000 men, to  go  down  and  stay  at
Rangoon.

When the rainy season had ended, Minlaung and his son
left Prome in the 11th month (October) and reached  Rangoon  in
the 12th month (November). He ordered Minhla Yaza and  Minhla
Mingaung to take command of the advance force of 20,000 men and
attack Tavoy. He arranged to have 4 cargo boats (Siamese, kampan)
and 50 water war boats, with  a  foree  of  10,000  men,  complete
with provisions, and ordered Arkarbomhu to take the command of
the   land   and  forces  and  attack  Tavoy.  Minlaung  stayed   in
Tavoy after it was captured and ordered Minhla Yaza  and  Minhla
Mingaung   to  attack  Mergui  (Siamese, Marit)  and  Tannasarim
(Siamese,   Tanow).  He  ordered   Arkarbomhu   with  a  force  of
10,000 men which he had in cargo  boats  to  attack  Mergui  and

 

 

 

 

 

 

38                                   Phra Phraison Salarak

 

Tannasarim. Minlaung had his forces  march  immediately  by  land
and he followed in their wake. Before his  land  forces  reached  the
two towns, they were joined by Minhla Yaza and  Minhla  Mingaung
with   their   forces   in  boats. Minlaung  reached  Mergui  and  Tan-
nasserim and he rested his army at Tannasserim. Then  he  placed
Minhla Yaza and  Minhla  Mingaung  in  command  of  units  of  the
advance force  of 20,000 men  with  his  son, Maung  Ra, in  overall
command. They  were  to  march  against  Ayuthia,  and  Minlaung,
with his own  forces, followed  them. When  he  arrived  in  Ayuthia,
Minlaung became ill  with  consumption  due  to  venereal  disease.
His condition became worse and he  ordered  Minhla  Mingaung  to
form a rear  guard  with  a  force  of  10,000  men. He  retreated  by
way of Raheng. From Raheng to the  boundary  between Siam  and
Burma was a distance of 900 sens. On the way he expired, and his
son, Maung Ra, carried his father's body in a palanquin to Môksobo,
which he reached  in  the  waxing  moon  of  the  6th  month  (May).
His body was cremated with white and red sandal  wood  (Siamese,
Chand  Deng, Chand  Khao; Burmese, Sandaku Ni, Sandaku Phyu.

Trans.). The  fire was  put  out  by  spraying it with rose water, and
his burnt bones were put in a new earthern  pot  which  was  gilded
and dropped in the middle of a river.

In the year Sakkaraj 1122 in  the  4th  month  (March), the
eldest son of Minlaung,  whose  name  was  Maung  Lawk  (Naung-
dawgyi), ascended the throne. In the 6th month of  the  same  year,
Minhla Mingaung, who was in command  of rear guard covering  the
retreat with a force  of  10,000  men,  arrived  at  Ava. He  collected
men and their families in the Ava district and kept  them concealed
in the city of Ava. He refused to submit to  Maung  Lawk, who  had
ascended the throne of his father at  Môksobo. Maung  Lawk  soon
became   aware   that  Minhla  Mingaung  thought  of  rebellion. He
therefore ordered Chita Raja, the Sengneng Bo, and Min-ngè  Bala,
the Sabkung Bo, with 20,000 men as an advance force to go down
and surround Ava. Then  Maung  Lawk  came  down  with  a  force
of 30,000 men and  established  himself  at  the  town  of  Sagaing
(Siamese,   Chakeng)   on  the  opposite  bank  of  the  river. They

 

 

 

 

 

        THE TESTIMONY OF AN INHABITANT OF THE CITY OF AVA        39

 

fought one another for seven months, and at  last  the  city  of  Ava
was captured. Minhla Mingaung fled from  Ava  but  Maung  Lawk's
forces pursued him and shot him dead. Maung Lawk then  returned
to Môksobo.

In  the  year  Sakkaraj  1123, in   the  4th  month  (March),
wonderful things happened; there was an earthquake, and from  all
four directions came a shattering sound  like  the loud  report  of a
cannon. There was an eclipse of the sun and a comet appeared.

The younger brother of Minlaung whose name was  Thado
Uzana, and  who  had  been  appointed  governor  of  the  town  of
Toungoo, decided to revolt against Maung Lawk, his nephew, who
had ascended the throne at Môksobo. Maung  Lawk  had  already
ordered Bala Minding Sanlaki, who was an Amat,to the command
of 5,000 men, with instructions to levy men on  the way  from  the
town of Pray to Toungoo. When Maung Lawk became aware  that
Thado Uzana, the governor of Toungoo,   intend  to  revolt  against
him, he ordered Min-ngè Bala in command of 3,000 men to march
ahead as an advance force, with Yolat Wun in command of  7,000
men as a supporting force, against Toungoo. In the year Sakkaraj
1124, in the 12th  month  ( November ), he  mobilized  a  force  of
10,000 men, and placed Argarkyawdin in charge to march  ahead
of him. He himself commanded  the  main  army  of  20,000  men
against Tou ngoo. In the 12th mouth  on  the  10th  of  its  waning
moon he arrived at Toungoo.On the 2nd of the waxing moon of the
2nd month (January), Toungoo  fell,  and  Thado  Uzana,  together
with his wife,  children, and  nobles  were  captured, Maung  Lawk
took them to Môksobo. He did not harm them and they have been
maintained at Môksobo up to the present time.

Talaban and Phya Taw Phya (I suspect he was none other
than Binnya Taw. Trans.), who escaped with their  families  on  the
fall  of  Hongsawadi, were  staying  at  Kawbien  in  the  district  of
Martaban. Maung  Lawk  ordered  Lamaing  Wun, with  a  force  of
3,000 men to go to Talaban and Phya Taw Phya and  to  speak  to
them amicably. The  Lamaing  Wun, on  reaching  them, spoke  to
them most amicably and asked them to surrender to Maung  Lawk.

 

 

 

 

 

 

40                                  Phra Phraison Salarak

 

Talaban replied to Lamaing Wun, "If I surrender to the King  of
Ava, I am a fool. If the king of Ava seizes me and does not kill
me but maintains me in comfort, then the King of Ava is a fool.
But they seized my mother after the fall of  Hongsawadi. Even
should I die, let me see the face of my mother  for  a  moment."
Talaban and Phya Taw Phya and  their  families  were  seized
and sent up to Môksobo where they were maintained in comfort by
Maung Lawk.

Chiengmai with its 57 dependencies was formerly a province
of the kingdom of Ava. But it had ceased to  observe  the  ancient
custom and would not send presents to Maung Lawk. In Sakkaraj
1125 year, the 8th of the waxing moon of 12th month  (November),
Maung Lawk ordered Tainza Mingaung to take command of 3,000 men
as an advance force, and me, Arparkarmani, to command  7,000  men
as a supporting force, and to march against Chiengmai.In the first
month (December)   we  reached  Chiengmai. There  was  fighting
for four months before Chiengmai fell to the Burmese arms. Chow
Chan, the governor of Chiengmai, was captured together  with  his
family. But before the Burmese forces  could  return  to  Môksobo,
Maung Lawk expired in  the  4th  month  (March). The  obsequies
were performed according to custom.

In Sakkaraj 1125 year in the 4th month (March),  Maung
Ra, a son of Minlaung, the younger brother  of  Maung  Lawk, as-
cended the throne. I, Arparkarmani, who commanded  the forces
which had attacked Chiengmai, asked Maha Naratra with a force
of 7,000 men to take  Chow  Chan  and  his  family  and  present
them to Maung Ra, while with a force of 3,000  men  I  stayed  in
Chiengmai to guard the city. Maung Ra was then publicly known
by the name of the lord of the  white  elephant ( Sinbyushin ). He
maintained Chow Chan and family in comfort.

In the 11th month (October) of the same year, Maung Ra
ordered Yolat Wun to go down to Ava and reconstruct the city  of
Ava and refurbish the palaces there. Talaban wanted to harm  the
King of Ava. He had his servant who was named  Nai  Twe  throw

 

 

 

 

 

         THE TESTIMONY OF AN INHABITANT OF THE CITY OF AVA         41

 

lighted inflammable matter into  the  city  of  Môksobo. But  the
servant was apprehended in the act and an investigation proved
that Talaban intended to harm the King of  Ava. The King  there-
upon ordered the execution of Talaban.

In Sakkaraj 1126 year, in the 12th month  (November),
Maung Ra ordered Athè Wungyi and Taingza Bo to take  com-
mand of 10,000 men as an advance force, while he himself, in
command of the main army of 20,000 men, went to attack the city
of Kathè. In the same year, in the waxing  moon   of  the  2nd
month (January), he captured the city of the Kathè. Th e Chief
and his family were seized and taken to Môksobo, arriving there in
the 3rd month ( February ).

In Sakkaraj 1127 year in  the  6th  mouth  (May), the   King
came   down  from  Môksobo  and  reigned in  the  city  of  Ava.  He
brought with him the Chief of Kathè and his family  and   maintained
them in comfort. On the 5th of the waning moon  of  the 7th   month
(June) of the same year there was a great rain. Lightning struck  the
building that housed the drum for telling the hours of  the  day   and
night. It struck the pinnacle of  the  palace, which  caught  fire   and
made the top of the palace break and  fall  down. But  the  fire  was
put out and the storm and rain abated and finally stopped.The  King
of Ava asked the soothsayers, brahmans and learned men what  all
this meant,and they predicted that His Majesty would overcome his
enemies and that his subjects throughout his  kingdom   would  live
happily. They  asked  him  to  wash  the  hair  of  his  head, to  free
prisoners, and to release all animals which had been confined.

When   Sakkaraj   1127   year  arrived, in   the  12th    month
(November) the King of Ava gave Chabbakong Bo  and  Yankuankyaw
Bo command of 5,000 men as an advance force, and Myowun Nemyo
Maha Senabadi command of 5,000 men  as  a  supporting  force  and
ordered them to march north to Chiengmai and to remain there during
the rains. He ordered Mekhara Bo, in command of 5,000 men  as   an
advance force, and Maha Naratra, in command of 10,000  men   as  a
supporting force, to march  to  Tavoy  and  to  wait  there   during  the
rains. At  the  end  of  Buddhist  Lent, both  forces, the  northern  and

 

 

 

 

 

 

42                                      Phra Phraison Salarak

 

the southern, were to attack Ayuthia, and when  it  was  captured
the forces were to return to Ava.

Beginning in late Sakkaraj 1128 year, the Haws (the Chinese
of Yunnan) came as far as the town of Seng-wi (Burmese,  Theinni),
which was about 15 days journey  by  road  from  the  city   of  Ava.
The King of Ava ordered Taingza Bo, in command of 5,000  men of
an advance force, and Athè Wungyi, in command of 10,000 men of
a supporting force, to attack the  Haws. The  Haws  were  defeated
and retreated to the north.

In Sakkaraj 1129 year, tbe Haws again came back and  they
reached the locality of the village  of  Ban-Yong,  which  was  only  a
night's   journey   from   the   city   of   Ava. The  King  ordered  Athè
Wungyi, Yolat Wun and Myin Wun, three men in command of many
forces,  to   attack  the  Haws. After  three  days'  attack, the  Haws

suffered a defeat and their commanders, Èsuhe,  Kuntaryè,  Mienkunyè
and Parasuyè — four of them — and 6,000 men and petty officers were
captured. The  King   of   Ava  ordered  that   they   should  be  held
unharmed.

In Sakkaraj 1131 year, the Haws came back again  the  third
time, in  great  force, under  the  command  of   Kwe  Chwe Bo. They
reached the town of Kongtung Bamoh, a distance of 15 days' journey
by road. The   King  ordered  Tainza  Boh  and  Tarieugrarma, with  a
force of 5,000 men, to march ahead, and Athè Wungyi, in  command
of 10,000 men to march against the Haws by road.He ordered Ngazu
Wun and Laytaw Wun (probably the minister in charge  of  the  royal
boat. Trans.) to take the command of 5,000 men as an advance river
force, and Ammalock Wun, who was  commander  of  cannons   and
in command of 10,000 men, to take the chief command of both  land
and river  forces.  They  arrived   at  Kongtung  Bamoh  at  the  same
time. The forces of  both  sides   drew  up  and  waited  for  the  com-
manders to settle  affairs  peaceably. Kwe  Chwe  Boh,  commander-
in-chief of the Haws, sent a  deputy to Athè Wungyi suggesting  that
the chief commanders of  both  sides  meet  and  discuss  terms  of
agreement. Athè Wungyi  then  ordered  that  a  building  be  put  up

 

 

 

 

 

 

          THE TESTIMONY OF AN INHABITANT OF THE CITY OF AVA           43

 

between the contending forces. The  cominanders-in-chief  of  both
sides went to the building at the same time.After some discussion
they agreed that henceforth there should be no war at all  and that
they should be friendly and intimate with each other, and  that  the
people of each country should be allowed to enter that of the other
and to trade freely.  After  the  agreement, Athè  Wungyi  and  the
several commanders then withdrew to Ava.

In Sakkaraj 1131 year, in the 10th of the waxing moon of the
7th month (June), lightning struck the post which held the  gilt  plank
on which the name  of  the  door  of  the  city  was  inscribed. In  the
8th  month  (July) of  the  same  year, the  governor  of  the  town  of
Chantaburi presented his daughter to the King of Ava.

In  Sakkaraj  1133  year, Chow  Wong, the Chief of Luang
Phrabang, came  down  and  attacked the  town of Chantaburi. Its
governor  informed  the  King of Ava, who  then ordered  Chikching
Bo, in command of 2,000 men as an advance force, and Nemyo Maha
Senabadi, that is, Bo Subala, with 3,000 men, as commander-in-chief
of both forces, to attack the town of Luang Phrabang. Luang  Phra-
bang was captured and Bo Subala, with his forces, went up to the
town of Chantaburi, and stayed there during the rainy season.

In Sakkaraj 1134 year, when the rainy season was over, Bo
Subala and his forces came down and attacked the town  of  Lab-lè
and Pichai. Ayuthia sent up a force which attacked Bo Subala  and
his forces, and defeated them. Bo Subala  retreated  to  Chiengmai,
where he remained throughout the rainy season.

In Sakkaraj 1135 year, Amat Chantaraw, the Thugyi of Lebo,
with a force of 3,000 Kathès, intended to revolt against  the  King  of
Ava, and he had the Kathè Yogi burn a corner of  the  city. The  Yogi
also set ablaze a rest house of the monastery of Swechikung, (probably
Shwe  Zigôn.  Trans.). He   also  set  fire  to another  building  in  the
vicinity of the monastery. When arrested and questioned, Kathè Yogi
deposed that Chantaraw, Amat Thugyi Lebo, had  asked  him  to  set
fires in four places, to attack the city  with  his  3,000  men, to  seize
the King  of  Ava  and  murder  him. An  inquiry  proved  the  truth  of

 

 

 

 

 

 

44                                        Phra Phraison Salarak

 

this deposition, and the King ordered the execution of  3,000  Kathès
together with their leaders.

At the end of Buddhist Lent, the King  of  Ava  ordered Phya
Chaban, with 1,000 Laos, to march as an advance force, with Nemyo
Karmani, who was guarding the city of Chiengmai, and Bo Subala, in
chief command with a force of 9,000 men, consisting of a mixture  of
Laos and Burmans, to go down and attack Ayuthia. These forces left
Chiengmai   and   travelled  the  distance  of  a  night's  journey  from
Chiengmai—that is, about 500 wahs by road. Bo Subala became aware
that Phya Chaban was thinking of deserting  to  the  Siamese  forces
and   fighting   against   him.  He  therefore   returned  to   Chiengmai.
When the Siamese forces from Ayuthia  came up,  the  forces  under
Kawila, the  governor  of  Nakon  Lampang  (Siamese,  Phya  Lakon),
and Phya  Chaban  went  over  to  Siamese  forces  and  surrounded
Chiengmai. Bo Subala and Nemyo Karmani could not stand  against
the combined attack and they left Chiengmai and withdrew  to  Monè
(Siamese, Maung Nai). The   King  ordered  the  wife  of  Bo  Subala,
who was at Ava, to be imprisoned. She was able to send a messenger
to Bo Subala, warning  him  not  to  return  to  Ava.  Bo  Subala  left
Monè and fled to Shwegyin, which was near Toungoo.

In Sakkaraj 1135 year, the King  sent  a  letter  to  Pagan
Wun, the governor of Môktama, ordering  him  to  levy  a  force  of
10,000 Mons, assume  command  of  it  and  attack  Ayuthia. The
Pagan Wun then called upon Phya Chaeng, Talasaeng, and Phya
Oo with a force of 3,000 men  to  go in  advance. Phé  Kicha  was
made commander-in-chief of this force, which proceeded  to  build
granaries at Asmi and Parsak and fill  them with provisions. When
the Buddhist Lent ended, the Pagan Wun expected to follow them
with a force of 7,000 men.

It was planned that, in Sakkaraj 1136 year, an army  from
Ava should come down  and  attacked  Ayuthia. But  Pagan  Wun
seized the personal ornaments, those of silver and gold, from  the
wives of  his  petty  commanders. This  greatly  distressed  those
Mons who had been ordered to build the granaries, as well  those
others who had been left  behind. Talasaeng  thereupon  wrote  to

 

 

 

 

 

 

                 THE TESTIMONY OF AN INHABITANT OF THE CITY OF AVA           45

 

Phya Chaeng, telling him that all the Smings  and  the  Mons  had
reported that Pagan Wun was oppressing them intolerably. Talasaeng
also suggested that Phya Chaeng himself and the Mons should come
back hastily to Môktama. Phya Chaeng, Talasaeng , together  with
other Smings and Mons, seized Phè Kicha,the commander-in-chief,
and   murdered  him.  All   the  Mon  forces  then  marched  toward
Môktama. The  Pagan  Wun,  the  governor  of  Môktama, and   the
Akun Wun became aware that  Phya  Chaeng  and   Talaseng  had
murdered Phè Kicha and that the forces were returning to Môktama.
The Pagan Wun and the Akun Wun then  ran  away  in  a   boat  to
Rangoon. Phya Chaeng and Talasaeng and other  commanders  of
the Mon forces pursued the fugitives and attacked a fort at Takkale
(Burmese, Taikkala)  on  the  outskirts  of  Rangoon. The  advance
force under the command of Athè Wungyi  came  down  from   Ava
and fought with the  Mon  forces  at  Rangoon. Phya  Chaeng  and
Talasaeng and other Mon commanders were  worsted  in  the  fight
and   retreated   to   Môktama. They  collected  their  families  and
prepared   to   go   and  live  in  Ayuthia. But  the  Burmese  forces
pursued them. They   captured  Talasaeng  and  his  family  in  the
district of Môktama and sent them to the  King of  Ava. During  this
period the King and his ministers  were  putting  up  a  Hti  (on  the
Shwe   Dagôn   pagoda. Trans.) at    Rangoon.  The   King   asked
Talasaeng   who  were  his  accomplices  in  the  revolt. Talasaeng
deposed that the governor of Hongsawadi and his  younger  brother,
the Uparajā, sent a letter to him and to Phya Chaeng by  the  hand
of a messenger, urging that the Smings and the Mons seize all the
Burmans living in Môktama and murder them, attack Rangoon, and
then march up  to  Ava.  Upon  being   questioned, the  governor  of
Hongsawadi and  the  Uparajā admitted their  guilt. The  King   then
ordered  the  execution of the governor of Hongsawadi, the  Uparajā,
and Phya Talasaeng.

In Sakkaraj 1136 year, Athè Wungyi  marched  down  to
attack   Ayuthia. An  advance  force  of  3,000  Burmese,  driving
southward, reached the town of Rajburi, nearby which a Siamese
force Surrounded them. Athè Wungyi  sent  word  of  this  to  the

 

 

 

 

46                                      Phra Phraison Salarak

 

King, who ordered Akun Wung  Maung Yo, with  a  force  of  3,000
men to go to the aid of the Burmans where they  were  surrounded
by the Siamese forces on the hill of  Nang  Keo  near  Rajburi. But
the assisting force suffered many casualties in dead and wounded.
Athè   Wungyi  reported  this  to  the  King  of  Ava. But  the  King
replied that to free the3,000 men it would be necessary to  expend
over 10,000 men. Because it was near the rainy  season  and  the
forces were suffering much for  want  of  provisions, Athè  Wungyi
asked the King for permission  to retreat  with  his  main  force  to
Môktama. He said that  next  year  he  would  march  and  attack
Ayuthia, and that he would rescue and present to His Majesty the
3,000 men, together with their  commanders, who  were  now  sur-
rounded by  the  Siamese. The King  replied that he approved  the
Athè Wungyi's report because it was in accordance with the usual
government work. He said that he would leave it to Athè Wungyi's
discretion to make certain of the capture of Ayuthia.

In Sakkaraj 1137 year, the King  returned  to  Ava. In  the
same year on the 11th month (October),Athè Wungyi ordered Min
Yarngè and the petty officers, Pannyi Yegaung  Kyaw  and  Panyi
Tachong, with a force of 20,000 men to march by  way of  Raheng.
He himself, as commander-in-chief of a force of 15,000 men, inves-
ted the town of Pitsanuloke. Athè Wungyi divided  his  forces  and
met the Siamese forces sent from  Ayuthia  at  the  mouth  of  the
river Me Ping. When Pitsanuloke fell to the Burmese  forces, Athè
Wungyi sent a report to His Majesty of Ava. Before this  message
could reach him the King  died. He  was  succeeded  by  his  son
Sin-gu-za   ( Siamese,   Chin - ku - cha. Trans).  The   new   King
sent a government officer with  orders  to  abandon the  attack  on
Ayuthia as well as the attack  of  the forces at Tavoy, Mergui, and
Tenasserim. Athè Wungyi, who had attacked Ayuthia, went  back
to Ava. Sin-gu-za then  performed  the  funeral  rites  of  his  father
according to custom.

In Sakkaraj 1138 year, Sin-gu-za ascended the throne of his
father. Salinza (Siamese, Chalencha), younger brother  of  Sin-gu-za,
had been appointed governor of the  town  of  Salin  while  his  father

 

 

 

 

 

 

       THE TESTIMONY OF AN INHABITANT OF THE CITY OF AVA              47

 

was alive. In company with the Atwinwun, a minister  of  the  court,
he conspired to seize the throne of  his  brother. Upon  learning  of
this conspiracy Sin-gu-za ordered the execution of Salinza and the
Atwinwun. He  then  supported the Buddhist  religion  by  repairing
Buddha images, pagodas  and  monasteries which were in a dilapi-
dated condition, applying black paint (Burmese "thitsi" and Siamese
'rak." Trans.) to them and gilding them with gold leaf.

In Sakkaraj 1142 year, the King, Sin-gu-za, removed Athè
Wungyi from  government  service. He  ordered  the  execution  of
Amyin Thakin, a son of Minlaung, and the younger  brother  of  his
father. But Amyin Thakin was saved by Padôn, who removed   him
to Sagaing. Padôn also saved Pakhan Thakin and established him
at Pin-ya, and Pindate Thakin whom  he  placed  in  the  village  of
Chikki. These three persons were the sons of Minlaung and younger
brothers of Maung Ra.

In Sakkaraj 1143 year, the pagoda at  the  town  of  Pan-ya,
which was only 300 wahs by road from the city  of  Ava,  and   which
was   called  Shwe  Zigôn,  was  destroyed. The  Buddha  image  at
Sagaing, which was on the opposite bank of  the  city  of  Ava, shed
tears. Sin-gu-za arranged to have offerings made to Buddha  and  he
set out to worship the Buddha image at the place called Siha, which
by road was a  five  day's  journey  from  the  city  of  Ava. When  he
had travelled by boat for three nights, Maung  Maung, son of  Maung
Lawk, together with many  of  his  friends  and  accomplices, seized
the throne  and  declared  himself  king. Maung  Maung  sought  out
his uncles, Padôn Thakin, Pakhan Thakin and  Pindate  Thakin  and
these three came together to the city of Ava. Maung  Maung  offered
the  throne  to  these  uncles, but  Padôn, Pakhan, and  Pindate  all
refused it, saying that it had been obtained by Maung Maung's merit
and that he should keep  it.  Athè  Wungyi  was  then  reinstated  in
his former position. But the  accomplices  of  Maung  Maung, whom
he had appointed as his ministers,  maltreated  the  people, seizing
their   property,  their  silver, gold  and   their  unmarried   daughters
who were without fault and  innocent  of  any  crime. The  people  in
general  were  greatly  oppressed  and  they  hated  Maung  Maung.

 

 

 

 

 

 

48                                     Phra Phraison Salarak

 

Observing this, Padôn sought out his relatives  and  the  old  officials,
and  told  them  that  although  Maung  Maung  had  been  ruling  for
only five or six days he had  already  brought  great  distress  to  the
people.  Padôn  stated  that  Maung  Maung  was  unfit  to  rule. The
old ministers and the populace were of the same  opinion  as Padôn.
They surrounded the palace, and fought Maung Maung's forces  from
early   morning   until   noon   of    that   day.  They   suffered   many
casualties, but at last  captured  Maung  Maung  and  executed  him.
Padôn then ascended the throne.He ordered that the bodies of those
who died in the encounter be  loaded  in  carts  and  thrown   outside
the city.

In that year, King Padôn ordered  Amat  Maha  Silawa  and
Chawk Talung Bo, with 50 war boats and about 1,000 men, to  seek
out Sin-gu-za and arrest him. When this force arrived  at  the  village
Sanpho, a distance of  six  nights'  journey  from  Ava, it  found  that
Sin-gu-za and the remainder of his  friends,  totalling  about  30 men,
and his wife and concubines had run away and  were  staying  there.
Sin-gu-za surrendered to Amat Maha Silawa, assuring  himself  that
because his uncle Padôn had ascended the throne he would not  be
killed. But Amat Silawa put Sin-gu-za and his family in confinement
and presented them to  King  Padôn. The  King  thereupon  ordered
that Sin-gu-za and all his family be executed.

In Sakkaraj 1144 year, at about 9 p.m.  on  a  night  of  the
7th month (June), a Burman by the name of Nga  Pôn, who  was  a
vagrant in the city of  Ava, with  about  300  of  his  friends, entered
the palace with the intention of seizing the  throne. Padôn  and  his
partisans fought against Nga Pôn  and  his  men. Many  casualties
were suffered on both sides before Padôn captured Nga Pôn and his
accomplices, whom he had put to  death. In  that  year  during  the
12th month (November), Padôn ordered  that  a  new  city  be  built
at a place called Phongkar to the east of the city of Ava  and  at  a
distance of 300 sens from it by road.

In Sakkaraj 1145 year, in the 7th month (June), Padôn
transfered his capital to the city of Amarapura, which had been

 

 

 

 

 

 

            THE TESTIMONY OF AN INHABITANT OF THE CITY OF AVA          49

 

built  anew. In  the  12th  month  (November)  of  that  year,  Padôn
placed the Ekkaban Wun and other ministers in command of 4,000
men as an advance force and appointed Sagu Thakin, his son, with
a force of 10,000 men as commander-in-chief, and ordered them to
march against Arakan by way  of  the  town  Santwè (Thandwè), in
the   Arakan   district.  He  placed   Minkhun   (Mingun)  Wun  and
other ministers in command of 4,000 men as an advance force and
appointed his son, Karma Thakin with a  force  of  10,000  men, as
commander-in-chief and,ordered them to march against Arakan by
way of the town of Mar-i-la-mu  in  the  Arakan  district. He  placed
Siri Tarieng, Yegaung Teza and Chek Rechaw Boh,in command of
4,000 men as an advance force,and appointed his elder son,with a
force of 16,000 men, as commander-in-chief, and ordered them  to
attack the city of Dinnyawadi, that  is,  Arakan,  by  way  of  Tong
Kok (Taunggup). When   his  elder  son  and  his  forces  reached
Arakan he  ordered  Maha  Kyawdin, Talayar Yè,  Chaw-arkar  Yè,
Chawtamut Yè and Khong-Decha, in command of 5,000 men in  500
war boats, to proceed by water  to  Arakan.  After  reaching  Tong
Kôk in the 1st month (December), they attacked and entered  the
town of Tanloi. Chawti, the governor of Tanloi,  left  the  town  and
fled across the water. The Burmese land and water forces embarked
in boats and pursued the fugitive during the 2nd month  (January).
The forces converged from three directions and arrived at the same
time at the town of Lemichung, distant from the  town  of  Arakan
only by about 100 wahs. The governor (or the king. Trans.)  came
out with his forces and ministers and offered resistance, but were
defeated. They withdrew  into  the  city, followed  closely  by  the
Burmese forces. The King of Arakan fled  from  the  city, but  the
Burmese forces pursued and captured him. On  the 13th  waxing
moon of the 3rd month  (February),  the  King  of  Dinnyawadi  of
the country of Yakaing, all his  family,  with  their  personal  orna-
ments, his decorations, and his ministers were brought to the capital
of Burma. Chawk Su with a force of 10,000 was left to  keep  the
peace of Dinnyawadi, and all the forces  and  their  commanders
returned to Amarapura in the 5th month  (April).  Padôn  ordered

 

 

 

 

 

 

50                                       Phra Phraison Salarak

 

that the King of Dinnyawadi his family  and  his  ministers  be  main-
tained in Amarapura. But the King  of  Dinnyawadi  became  ill  and
died. His ministers and common people, amounting to 50,000, were
given paddy lands and means of living by Padôn.

In Sakkaraj 1147 year, it was  reported  that  Pindate, the
youngest brother of King Padôn of  Amarapura, was  planning   to
revolt. After an inquiry  proved  that the report was  true, the  King
ordered the execution of Pindate and his accomplices, numbering
about 50 persons.

In the 9th month (August) of  that  year,  the  King  ordered
Natmileng, Paleng Bo, Petongza, Nachakki Bo, Tongphyung Bo, and
Nemyo Khung-narat, with 2,500 men as an advance land force, and
Satinglangkhieng,  Barwarchieng,  Eng-ying-teza,   Udin-Yaw,  with
Yiwun as commander-in-chief of a 3,000-man boat force,to proceed
and attack  the  town  of  Talang  (in  Siamese  territory). The  King
ordered the Kengwun, with a force of 4,500 men, to  march  against
the towns of Nakhon. (Nakhon Sitamarat in southern Siam. Trans.)
Choomphon, and Chaiya. The  King  ordered  the  Chikkè (Sitkè) of

Tavoy, Manichawkhong, Sihayèchawteng,Peya Bo and Tavoy Wun,
with a force of 3,000 men, to march against Tavoy  as  an  advance
force.  He   ordered   Tareng-yarmsu,  Manisinta,  Surinchaurkhong,
and Chilsin Boh, with a force 3,000 men to march as  a  supporting
force.  He    ordered    Anawkphat    Tikwun   (Anauk-phet-taikwun),
with a force of 4,000 men, to march  against  the  town  of  Rajburi.
He ordered the Kalarwun,  Pitông-ying,  Sulechi,  Pan-ya-U,  Arkar-
chawteng (Argark-yawdin), Lansan Boh,  Akhong-wun  (Akhunwun),
Pay-yi-tasong, Lamo-wun, and Swe-khong-arkar,with a force10,000
men, to march against Môktama, and he gave instructions that the
Myowun would administer the town with the help of all  his  officers.
This was an advance force, and it was regarded as the number one
force. Ywoi-lak-ya-yè-khong   (Yweletyar-yègaung)  Chawkar   Boh,
Tareng-pan-yi, and Tuk-yè-Boh led a supporting force of 5,000 men
with Myien-may-wun as their  chief.  This  was  force  number  two.
Another supporting force, of 10,000 men  was  led  by  the  officers
Yuan-chu-wun (Ywun-zu-wun), Chitkong Siriya, Kengwun (Kinwun),

 

 

 

 

 

            THE TESTIMONY OF AN INHABITANT OF THE CITY OF AVA          51

 

Yèlewun (Ye-hle-wun), with Karma Thakin, the younger  son  of  the
King of Amarapura, as commander-in-chief. This was force  number
three. There was another force of 10,000 men,led by Mekkhara Boh,
Atitaw-arkarpau-yi,  Mayolat-wun,  with   Sagu  Thakin,  the  middle
son of the  King  of  Amarapura,  as  commander-in-chief. This  was
force number four. The army  of  the  King  was  a  forward  force of
5,000 men, commanded by Charwar Boh,Yakhaing Bo, Pakan-wun,
Lawkar-sung-tong-wun,  May-chun-wun,  with  Asè-wang-mu  (Athè-
win-hmu)   as  the  chief  commander. On  the  right  of  the  King's
forces, 5,000 men led by the officers Ammalawk-wun, Tnanseng-wun,
Lay-chawphwa (Le-sawbwa),  Yatchawk Boh,  Ngar-chu-wun  (Bga-
zu-wun), together with another force of 5,000 men led by  Ma-yawk-
win-mu (Myauk-wun-hmu), who was also the chief  commander  of
the  entire  force. On  the  left  wing  of  the  King,  Lèka-roya-kimu
(The Siamese, "kimu" is evidently the Burmese "kin-hmu." Trans.),
Leseng-wun, Yuan-chu-wun (Burmese, Yunzu),Yakiwun (Burmese,
Kyi-wun), and Thibaw Sawbwa (Siamese, Sibaw-chow-phwar) l  ed

a force of 5,000 men, with Tong-weng-hmu   (Burmese,  Taung-win-
hmu) as the chief commander. Another force  of  5,000  men   was
led  by  Ra-warlat-wun, Awkmar-wun,  Mogaung-sawbwa,  Mokeik-
Sawbwa, Mohnyin-Sawbwa, with Anauk-winhmu as the  chief com-
mander. The forces of Padôn, the King of Amarapura,consisting of
20,000 men under the command of Inge Thakin,an elder son of the
King, and the minister Insè-wun (Siamese, Amat), were  to remain
in the capital, to transact affairs of  the country  and  to  guard  the
city. In the direction of Raheng a force  of 3,000  men, was  led  by
Swe-tong-nawrata and Swe-tong-siri-Sawbwa (Siamese "Swe-tong,"
I   think,  is  "Shwe-daung"  in   Burmese. Trans.), with   Swe-tong-
way-ra-chaw-teng (Shwe-daung-way-ra-kyawdin) as the chief  com-
mander. A  force of 2,000 men  was  sent  as  a  supporting  force
under the command of Kyaw-gaung-nawrata. Towards  Chiengmai,
the King sent a force of more than 20,000 men, with Thado  Maha-
siri Uzana as commander-in-chief.

On arriving  at  Cheingsen, Thado  Mahasiri  Uzana  ordered
Pan-yi-tachong Boh, Chwelan-tong Boh, Yègaw-Nawrata, Palan Boh,

 

 

 

 

 

 

52                                      Phra Phraison Salarak

 

Natsu-malan Boh, Môk-u Boh, Sara-kyawzu to take the command of
5,000 men, and, with Memyo Thihathuya as the chief commander, to
go down and attack  the  town  of  Pitsanuloke. After  taking  Pitsanu-
loke, they were to establish  themselves  at  the  mouth  of  the  river
Me  Ping.  Mwe-yong,  Chieng-kalay, Phya   Chaiya,  and  Noi  Anta,
leading 3,000 men, with me, Arparakarmani, in chief command, were
ordered to proceed towards Chèhom. A force  of  15,000  men  under
Chèkè Bo, Phya Prè, Akhunwun, Utingchèkka Bo, Nemyo  Yantameik,
with Thado Mahasiri Uzana in chief command, was ordered to proceed
and  surround  the  town  of  Lakon (i.e., Nakon Lampang in the north.
Trans). When the  Siamese  forces  from  Ayuthia  went  up  to  help
defend the town of Lakon, they met the Burmese forces at the mouth
of the river Me Ping. A fight ensued and the Burmese  were  defeated
and  put  to  flight. They  dispersed  in  every  direction  and  suffered
many casualties in dead and wounded. The  Siamese  seized  many
ponies and captured many prisoners of war. Remnants  of  the  force
which was defeated at the mouth of  Me Ping  eventually  found  their
way up to the town of Lakon, where they warned me,  Arparakarmani,
and   Thado  Mahasiri  Uzana, who  was  commander-in-chief  of  the
Burmese force in the town of Lakon, that  the  Siamese  forces  from
Ayuthia were pursuing them hotly and were in fact, about to fall upon
Lakon. Thado Mahasiri Uzana and I went out to  meet  the  Siamese
and fought with them from morning until noon, but we were  defeated.
Shortly afterwards we received an order, in the form of  a  letter  from
a government  officer, for  our  forces  to  retire  to  Ava, with  special
instructions to Thado Mahasiri Uzana  to  hasten  the  retreat  of  his
forces before the rains commenced and to reach Ava at a fixed  time.
But I was to remain at Chiengsen  as  its  governor  with  a  force  of
3,000 Burmans.

In Sakaraj 1148 year, the  King  ordered  Pan-yi-wesaw,  and
Shwedaung Yeya-kyawdin with a force of 2,000 men, and Kyawgaung
Nawrata with a force of 1,500 men as  commander-in-chief  to   go  up
to assist me in guarding the town of Chiengsen. Kyawgaung  Nawrata
was ordered to unite  the  forces  and  take  the  chief  command. But

 

 

 

 

 

 

       THE TESTIMONY OF AN INHABITANT OF THE CITY OF AVA         53

 

only 500 men came in to be united; 2,500  men  had  deserted  and
run away. The remaining  forces,  however,  were,  sufficiently  large
to enable us to attack the town of  Muang  Fang,  which  fell  to  us.
The commander-in-chief, Nawrata, with  most  of  the  force, stayed
there during  the  rains,  cultivating  the  fields. But  he  ordered  me,
with 50 men, to return to Chiengsen and attend to the affairs  of  the
town. I had spent a  year  with  10,000  men, cultivating  the  paddy
fields  at  Cheingsen, when  Phya  (governor) Prè, and  Phya  Yong
marched a Siamese force against us. I slipped out of the town  and
surrendered to Phya Chiengrai, who sent me to the Siamese forces
at Lakon. The governor of Lakon sent  me  on  to  Ayuthia  where  I
have been maintained until now. I knew that an  advance  Burmese
force led by Chanloon, the son of an old officer in Hongsawadi, and
Amat  Tin, the  son  of   Chaw-ka-took   Wun,  with  Lamaeng-wun
(probably   Lamaing   Wun  in  Burmese.  Trans.), as  commander-
in-chief were  marching  Mon  forces  against  Ayuthia  by  way  of
Môktama. I knew also that they were collecting  provisions  at  the
ferry crossing of Dindeng. Siamese forces  sent  up  from  Ayuthia
attacked these forces, which were defeated and put to flight, suffering
many casualties in dead and wounded.

I remember only so much. But I recall that, before Minlaung
became king, a king by the name of Chow Artit (in Siamese, "of  the
solar race") reigned for twenty years. He had a son who  succeeded
him  and  reigned  for  fifteen  years. This  son  appointed  Sar-awng
(Siamese, Tha Aung) to govern  Hongsawadi. When  Sar-awng  was
in office for three months, Seng-Mu revolted and captured  Sar-awng
and murdered him. Seng-mu  was  governor  for  seven  years  when
Minlaung captured Hongsawadi. Minlaung, who reigned at Môksobo,
had an elder brother and a younger brother before he  became  king,
but the elder brother died. The  younger  brother  is  still  living  with
the   title  of  Thado  Uzana.  When   Minlaung  died,  Maung  Lawk
(Naungdawgyi) succeeded him. Maung Lawk had reigned  for  three
years when he died. He had a son by the name  of  Maung  Maung,
but  Maung  Ra  (Sin-byu-shin) obtained   the  throne. He  had  two

 

 

 

 

 

 

54                                   Phra Phraison Salarak

 

sons, one by the name of Sin-gu-za and the other by  the  name  of
Salinza, and two daughters. He reigned for  thirteen  years  until  he
became ill  of  venereal  disease  and  died. Sin-gu-za  obtained  the
throne and  reigned  for  five  years. Before  he  died  Maung  Maung
held the throne for only six days and a half before he  was  captured
and executed. Padôn obtained the throne and proceeded to execute
Sin-gu-za and Pindate Thakin, his youngest brother.  Minlaung   had
three other sons besides those who received  his  throne  and  three
daughters, in all nine children.

I pray for His Siamese Majesty's glory.

 

 

 

 

 

                                                 _____________________________________

ดาวน์โหลดเอกสาร
FileคำอธิบายFile sizeDownloadsLast modified
Download this file (vol 45 pt 2 page 29-54.pdf)vol 45 pt 2 page 29-54.pdf 2708 Kb13909/22/10 13:18
 

ค้นหา

สถิติผู้เข้าชมเว็บไซต์

mod_vvisit_counterผู้เข้าชมวันนี้382
mod_vvisit_counterผู้เข้าชมเดือนนี้18867
mod_vvisit_counterผู้เข้าชมเดือนที่แล้ว22645
mod_vvisit_counterผู้เข้าชมทั้งหมด1981191

We have: 17 guests, 1 bots online
IP ของคุณ: 52.3.228.47
วันนี้: ๒๘ ก.ย. ๒๕๖๓