Regarding the Customs, Manners, Economics and Languages of the KHÂ (SO) and Phuthai Living in Ampho' Kutchinara1 ( กุฉินารายน์ ), Changvat Kalasindhu, Monthon Roiet. พิมพ์ อีเมล
เขียนโดย Major E. Seidenfaden   

SEIDENFADEN, ERIK. REGARDING THE CUSTOMS, MANNERS, ECONOMICS AND LANGUAGES OF THE KHÂ (SO) AND PHUTHAI LIVING IN AMPHO' KUTCHINARA1 ( กุฉินารายน์ ), CHANGVAT. JSS. VOL.34 (pt.2) 1943. P.145-181.

 

 

            REGARDING THE CUSTOMS, MANNERS, ECONOMICS
               AND LANGUAGES OF THE
KHÂ (SO) AND PHUTHAI
         LIVING IN AMPHO' KUTCHINARA1
( กุฉินารายน์ ), CHANGVAT
                                   KALASINDHU, MONTHON
ROI ET.

 

       TRANSLATED AND COMMENTED ON BY MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN,

Past President of the Thailand Research Society.

The following constitutes a reply to our Society's (questionaire
written quite twenty years ago, and was probably forwarded to our
Society by the changvat authorities of Kalasindhu at an unknown date.
The author's name is also unknown, and his manuscript was found by us
some years ago among other papers in our Society's library. Though
written twenty years ago, this paper contains so many valuable ethno-
logical and ethnographic data that we have thought it useful to translate
it and add to it some comments of our own. The So are an Austro-
Asiatic tribe, while the Phuthai, of course, are pure Thai, speaking a
dialect slightly different from our own "King's Thai."

The ampho' district of Kutchinarai lies to the north-east of the town
of Kalasindhu, in the hilly region of Phu Phân. The text that follows is
more, or less a literal translation of the replies to our questionaire :—

 

I. THE KHA (SO )

1) PHYSICAL ASPECT.

These people are of small stature and rather-dumpy of shape, their
height being between 1.40 to 1.60 metres. They are generally neither fat
nor thin. Their faces are oval of shape with small noses that are flattish
at their tips. Their lips are of a bluish dark colour but of equal size.
Some men grow a sparse beard in the form of a thin moustache. The
hair, having a length of only 2 krabiet (½ inch), is of a yellowish colour.

 

 

 

 

 

146                          MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                             [VOL. XXIV]

 

Their body hair is short, soft and also yellowish of colour. The hair of
the head of the So are in some cases frizzy, in others not so. When
frizzy, it is so by nature not by artificial means. The pupils of their eyes

are black yellowish, while the white of their eyes is of white colour tend-
ing towards yellow. Their eyes are horizontal, the external corner of
the upper eye-lid being a little lower than the internal corner of the eye.

The colour of their skia is reddish, where protected by clothing, but
swartish in the unprotected parts of the body. The congenital spot (1)
in the sacrolumbar region is found on all infants but disappears complete-
ly after a lapse of 30 days. Deformities of the skull, face, teeth or
genital organs are unknown.

The men tattoo their legs from above the knees high up on the thighs.
Some of the women tattoo their stomachs and wrists with patterns of rice
flowers or other flowers. Colouring by painting of the skin is unknown.

 

2) ETHNOGRAPHY.

These people live on the ridges of Phu Phau where this range of hills
meets Ehao PhS Daeng. To the north their territory is bounded by
ampo' That Choeng Chum (the town of Sakon Nakhon which stands
on the southern shore of the large inland lake of Nong Hân); to the south
by tambon Ban Dum Kao, ampho' Kutchinarai ; to the east It is
bounded by the territory of ampho' Na Kae, changvat Sakon Nakhon,
and to the west Ban Ph5n, tambon Dum Kao, ampho' Kutchinarai.
These people are very stupid and call themselves So (---), but their neigh-
bours call them Khâ. Their behaviour is not orderly, and their custom
is to walk rapidly; they do not understand bow to sit down in the proper
way, and their speech is uncouth and unbecoming!

Their villages, whioh are built in the virgin forest on the ridges
of the hills, consist of many houses, each individual house being enclos-
ed ' by a wooden fence ; there is no village enclosure. The houses
are built on poles with wooden walls and divided into small rooms just
large enough for sleeping places, They are of one storey only. The
household utensils such as those for preparing food, their clothing as well
as axes, spades, baskets, water jars and bedding, are all kept in the house
which is dirty and disorderly to a degree.

____________________________________________________________

(1) Also called the Mongolian spot, though it often occurs on European
babies too.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PT.2]                                    THE SO AND PHUTAI                                      147

 

The men generally wear a loin cloth of cotton and a coat of black
cotton with long sleeves. The women wear a pha-sin (skirt) and a black

cotton coat with long sleeves. At home the women do not put their arms
in the sleeves which are tossed up over their shoulders. On feast days the
men wear a silken phâ-nung and a scarf crossing the upper part of the
body instead of a coat. The women wear a pha-sin (of silk ?) and use a
scarf (breast cloth) instead of a coat. The males all cut their hair; all
the women wear it long, coiled up like a child's top knot. On ordinary
days the women use a head cloth like that of the Tongsu ; on feast days
this cloth is not pat on. The men do not use any personal ornaments.
The women adorn themselves with bracelets and earrings made of silver,
copper or brass. They also wear colliers made of beads or coins of silver
(sclu'ng or two salu'ng pieces). The men possess four kinds of clothing:—
Phâ-nung (languti), soarf, coat and trousers. The women have only
three kinds : Phâ-sin, coat and scarf.

 

Their food consists of rice, pepper sauce and vegetables. They do
not drink alcohol nor do they smoke opium, but both sexes chew betel.
The kitchen and eating utensils consist of clay pots and an (iron) frying
pan, cups for the pepper sauce and curry, and a kind of wooden receptacle
with holes in the bottom for steaming rice in the pan. This wooden
vessel they call muai nung khao. They also make a box of plaited
bamboo to place the rice in when eating (2). The pepper sauce and
curry cups are placed on a wooden stand.

The men hunt and fish. For hunting they use guns and cross bows.
For fishing they have nets and landing nets with short bandies. They
hunt wild ox, wild pig, barking deer, sambar, bear and various kinds of
birds. The supply of game and fish is, however, just sufficient to meet
their needs,

The So have no kinds of vehicles, their only means of transport being
by portage. They have both paddy fields and clearings (rai). For the
cultivation of the first-named they employ ploughs and harrows drawn by
buffaloes; for the latter they use axe, knife, hoe and spade in order to
clear the land for the jungle prior to sowing. They cultivate rice, gourds,
melons, Indian corn, beans, sesamum, pepper and tomatoes.

__________________________________________________________

( 2 ) Called Klong Khao in N. E. Thailand.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

148                               MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                            [VOL. XXIV]

 

The Sô do not possess any shops or markets but sell and buy in a
small way. Of the mai phung, which resembles bamboo, they tress
sleeping mats and barter these against clothes from the neighbouring (non-

So) people because they themselves do not understand how to weave silk
or cotton cloth.

Of handicrafts they only understand blacksmithing and the weaving
of baskets ; pottery, carpentry, weaving of cloth, sewing, embroidery,
dyeing and making salt are all unknown to them. The arms possessed
by them are guns, cross bows, spears and knives.

They are Buddhists in religion. Parents and elder brothers are
honoured but not elder sisters as these, once married, have to live with
their husbands. In any household, whether the father, mother or elder
brother be in charge, all the other inmates must obey, but the head of the
family must not whip or strike anybody, not even his own wife or
children! If anybody commits a wrong-doing the whole family is sum-
moned in order to admonish the guilty person. The small children'are
looked after as regards food and well being ; they are nursed if sick, but
no teaching of any kind is given them. In case of adoption the adoptive
parents are expected to love and care for the adopted child just as if it
were their own, and the adopted child himself must love and honour his
adoptive parents more than his natural parents. There are three ways
of adoption : a) adoption at the birth of the child, its mother having died ;
b) adoption at birth in case its mother is ill and cannot suckle her baby ;
and c) in case the child's parents are too poor to support their child, or
children, they may let other people adopt them. To be in order, such
adoption must take place in the presence of the families on both sides.
Written proofs are not required. In all the above-mentioned cases of
adoption the children are considered as having severed all relations with
their natural parents, the same holding good for the parents in question.
The adopted children must from now on consider their adoptive parents
as their real parents.

Marriage is based on reciprocal inclination and love. When a
young couple decides to marry, the young man procures a gift of clothing
or other kind of apparel and brings this to the young girl. This gift is
called khong fâk (ของฝาก). When the girl has accepted the gift she will
allow the young man to cohabit with her that night. The next day the
girl brings the gifts to her parents and says that a young man, so and so,



 

 

 


PT.2]                                     THE SO AND PHUTAI                                    149

 

has brought this gift, and that she wants to become his wife. On hearing
this her parents send a go-between to the young man's parents in order to
arrange matters with them. If refusal is met with from either side the

young girl must return the khonq fâk to the young man. If she should
not do so she will not able to marry any other man. When she has
returned the gifts the matter (between her and her lover) is considered as
finished ! In case the parents on both sides agree to the match the day
for the marriage is fixed. On the appointed day the bridegroom sends a
messenger with two candles and five baht to ask for the girl from her
parents. When the latter have accepted the candles and the money they
let their daughter accompany the messenger back to the bridegroom's
house. Arrived there, she eats and sleeps with him, and from now on
they are considered husband and wife. After not more than one month
has elapsed, the man sends to his parents-in-law a betel set with five
cups; a pair of bracelets made of copper or brass, two strings of beads,
and a boiled pig's head on a platter. If no pig's head can be had eight
fowls must be sent, two boiled ones and six in curry, besides twenty baht.
(The money does not matter). The husband himself must visit his
parents-in-law and salute them and the other family with two candles
in his hands, while the wife does the same to her parents-in-law and their
family.

Not more than three years after, the wife's family asks the husband
to present the same amount of food to them but no money is required this
time. When this custom has been followed twice the marriage is con-
sidered as fully established.

The parents have full authority over their children, and a daughter
cannot go to live with a man without having been properly married to
him. With regard to inheritance, all the sons inherit but not the daugh-
ters, as these, being married, now live with their husbands ! An exception
is made when there are no sons and then the daughters may inherit.

The girls enjoy a certain amount of liberty, such as if a young man
has not proposed and brought the gift (ของฝาก), or the girl refuses to
accept him as her lover, he is not allowed to embrace or kiss her. To
do that would be contrary to custom.

Separation and divorce do occur. This may be due to quarrels
between man and wife, or to the wrong-doings of one of them. If the

 

 

 

 

150                                  MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                        [VOL. XXIV]

 

wife wants to divorce her husband she must pay him a compensation of
twenty baht. If it is the other wav, then the husband must pay his wife
the same amount.

 

At birth, a new born infant is washed and wrapped up and given to its
mother to suckle. After a lapse of seven days, it is first given rice to eat.
After one year the child will be given ordinary food. The age of 18 years
is considered the right time for young people of both sexes to marry.

The So have no laws, whether criminal or civil, of their own. They
follow their time-honoured customs and obey the present-day (Thai) laws
of the realm. They know very well the difference between right and
wrong Violent crimes among them are unknown.

They do not possess any artistic faculties such as drawing or carving.
Play acting is unknown, and of musical instruments they only possess
the Khaen (reed flute) and the so-called crystal flute (ปี่แกว). Dancing,
singing, poetry or reciting fairy tales are all unknown to them. The So
have no literature either.

For computation of time, the Sô use days, nights, months and years.
They divide the day and night into early forenoon, noon, afternoon,
after-sunset, midnight and cock-crow. Their first day of the week is
Sunday, their last Saturday. The fifth month (du'an ha) is their first
month. Pi Chuat (Year of the Eat) is their starting year in the cycle
of the zodiac.

As medicine the So use extracts of certain roots but their medical
knowledge is nil.

Every year during the third or fourth month (March-April), they
usually travel on pilgrimage to the ,great That Phanom on the banks of
the Mekhong river. There are no sacrifices or prayers offered to the
spirits. There are no monks in their villages, but they possess small
images of the Buddha which they place on the south wall of their houses.
There are no ceremonies at the birth of children, such as encircling the
house with a sacred thread (to guard the baby against evil influences), or
shaving the hair of the new-born. There are also no ceremonies of any
kind whatever in case of. death. The corpse is simply buried or cremated
without any praying of monks. The place where the dead are buried or
cremated is always the same, but nothing is done to protect or keep up
that place.

 

 

 

 

 

PT.2]                                            THE SO AND PHUTAI                            151

 

No beliefs are attached to their dwellings, and no sacrifices are
made to the spirit cf the earth. The same holds good when houses are
built.

 

TRANSLATOR'S COMMENTS.

The So belong, as already said, to the Mon-Khmer group of the
Austro-Asiatic peoples. Their original habitat is in French Laos in the
province of Thâ Khaek where they live in the hilly jungle-covered parts.
During the long war between Annam and Thailand, about a hundred
years ago, some of these people were transferred to the right bank of the
Mekhong river and settled in the present changvats of Nakhon Phanom
and Sakon Nakhon. The So are found in somewhat compact communities
in the former ampho' of Kusumân to the north of the large inland lake
callled Nong Hân Yai or Sakon Nakhon, besides in ampho' Wanonniwat,
Nakhon Phanom and Thâ Uthen (4,250 souls in 1915). In ampho'
Mulcdahân there are, besides Sô, also Soai, the latter being a cross
between Phuthai and Sb. The present number of So is unknown but
from some old notes, taken more than 30 years ago, it seems that they
numbered at that time not more than 7,000 souls altogether in the two
changvats of Nakhon Phanom and Sakon Nakhon. Some So are living
in the southern parts of ampho' Warichaphum at the foot of the Pbu Phan
hills. Besides the So speaking So in ampho' Kutchinarai, treated in this
paper, there were in 1915 some 900 Thai speaking So in changvat Kala-
sindhu. The number of So living on this side of the Mekhong may there-
fore perhaps be put as high as 10,000. From my own experience I can
confirm that the So are very dark-skinned people, in some cases almost
black, with quite frizzy hair. This, of course, means that there must be
a strong strain of negroid blood in the So. The girls, however, do not
lack gracefulness, and are often well-shaped and lithe of movement.
Individuals with quite regular facial traits are sometimes met with. The
So observed by us were not of clean habits, and it seems that the hunt of
vermin in the hair of the head is quite a favourite sport. At present the
energetic campaign for increased cleanliness in dress and dwellings, which
has been taken up by the government authorities with so marked success,
may also have improved the So people's manners. The author of the
replies to our questionaire has omitted to touch on the strong superstitions
whieh, formerly at least, were so common among the So, often with fatal
results. We allude to their belief in Phi pop. Certain individuals, of

 

 

 

 


 

 

152                                MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                          [VOL. XXIV]

 

both sexes, were believed to be able, through sorcery, to kill any person
disliked by them. The process consisted of inserting a minute piece of
buffalo's skin in the food of the victim. After having entered the stomach
the piece of buffalo's skin would swell up to such a size that the unhappy
victim would die. Curiously enough the individuals suspected of being
Phi pop were always some of the cleverest among the men or some of
the prettiest of the girls ! Once convinced of the guilt of the suspected
Phi pop the whole population of the village would unite, and very often
the fate of him or her, who had been accused of being guilty, was to be
killed, if he or she did not run away. We have been told that quite a
number of such innocent persons had (1909) found an asylum in the large
Roman Catholic village of Thâ Rae standing on the north shore of Nong
Hân Yai. Due to the entire village community having' agreed to the
murder of such a phi pop it was always very difficult for the authorities
to find the actual murderer. From our service in the Provincial Gendar-
merie in the circle of Udorn during the years of 1909 to 1910, we
remember several of such phi pop cases. In one case, as far as we re-
member, it was necessary to arrest almost the entire village population
to find out the truth as regards the actual murderer or murderers. It is
to be hoped that with the present school facilities and the spreading of
public cultural instruction this So belief in phi pop has waned, if not alto-
gether disappeared-.

II. THE PHUTHAI

1. PHYSICAL ASPECT.

They (men and women) are of a slender well proportioned build;
their skin colour whitish-yellow. Their height ranges between 140 to 160
centimetres. The men are generally meagre while the women are often
quite plump. Their faces looked en face are oval or egg-shaped, in pro-
file they appear sharp with small straight but flattish noses. Their lips
are bluish and the under lip is somewhat thicker than the upper lip which
has a cleft (as we all have) just below the nose. The beard and
whiskers are scarce and only found in some people, and then only in
form of a few straggling hairs on the upper lip or on the chin. The
colour of their beard is whitish yellow, the hair of a length of 1/2 to 1 inch,
and they are thicker and stiffer than the head hairs. The hair on the
body is scarce and very short, almost invisible, soft and black or whitish

 

 

 

 

PT.2]                                   THE SO AND PHUTAI                                   153

 

of colour. The hair of the head is black, tending towards yellow, and
grow low down on the fore front. It is softer than the beard and whis-
kers. Some individuals have curly hair and some not, and if curly it is
so by nature and not artificially curled.

The pupils of their eyes are black, while the white in their eyes is
white tending towards yellow. The external corners of the eyes are a
little higher than the internal ones. The lower eyelid's external corner is
also a little higher than the internal corner of same.

The protected parts of their skin are of a white reddish colour, while
those parts exposed to the rays of the sun are brownish.

All babies are born with the Mongolish spot in the sacrolumbar
region. It disappears after the child has reached three years of age.
This spot is called mat dam (มาดดำ) in the Puthai dialect.

They do not practise any deformation of their skulls, faces, jaws,
lips or tongue, but the lobes of the ears of all their women extend down
to the level of their jaws, this being caused by the heavy silver ear pen-
dants, of a weight from "one baht to two salu'ng, which it is the custom
to wear. In the year 1921, there were in the district of ampho' Kutchi-
narai nine albinos, eight men and one woman. Their skins were pink
coloured, the hair on their head and bodies white. Their pupils were
yellowish-white. In all other aspects, they were quite normal, and they
were born of normal parents.

All the men tattoo their legs from above the knee to the waist on
both sides. Almost all Che women tattoo their stomachs and their wrists
with patterns of rice flowers, other flowers or leaves, but they do not paint
any parts of their bodies.

 

2. ETHNOGRAPHY.

This group of people build their villages on rising ground ( โคก ) and
where there are no water courses. Their district is bounded to the north
by Monthon Udorn; to the south by ampho' Phbnthông, Changvat Roi
Et ; to the east by Monthon Udorn and to the west by the territory of
ampho' Lub, Changvat Kalasindhu, They call themselves Phuthai;
their neighbours call them by the same name. They are of noisy uncouth
manners, and their manner of speech is very uncivil ; they use the words

 

 

 

 

154                                    MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                            [VOL. XXIV]

 

ku and mu'ng (for I and you) for instance. (3) Their villages consist
of from ten houses and upwards enclosed by wooden fences. The houses
are constructed on piles and of a single storey, with walls all round.
They are divided into small rooms for sleeping places All the household
utensils are kept in the house which is very dirty. On ordinary days the
men dress in a loin cloth and a black shirt while the women wear a phâ
sin ( skirt ). and a black cotton coat with long sleeves. At home they do
not dress properly but wear the coat rouncLthe neck with its sleeves tossed
over their shoulders.

On feast days the men wear a phâ nung ( languti ) and a shirt, car-
rying their loin cloth ( Plia khâo ma ) in their hands. The women dress
in pha sin and their long sleeved black ooats, on which are sewn fringes
of. red cloth at the neck, on the breast and at the ends of the sleeves The
men do not wear any ornaments, The small girls and non-married girls
adorn themselves with silver bracelets and ear pendants, besides neck
chains of beads and collars of baht or salu'ng coins. The married and
elderly women wear only bracelets and ear pendants. All the men cut
their hair short, but the women wear it long coiled on the top of their
heads. On ordinary days the women wrap a piece of cloth round their
chignon. This is not done on feast days. The men have four kinds of
clothing : phâ nung, shirt, trousers and loin cloth. The women have
only three kinds : phâ sin, breast cloth and coat. Their food consists
mainly of rice, pepper sauce and vegetables. They sometimes drink a
little alcohol, all the men smoke tobacco and some opium. Both sexes
chew betel, using the heart of trees to mix with the betel (like the So)-
The kitchen utensils and eating vessels are exactly the same as described
under the So.

They hunt and fish just sufficient in order to replenish their larders.
They use guns and cross bows as well as traps. For fishing they employ
nets, drag nets, landing nets (saiving), (niong),(4) sadung, (5) bow
nets and lines.

For transport they use bullock carts and ponies.

(3) Ku and Mu'ng for I and you are of course the original Thai words and
as such not coarse at all.

(4) a kind of netting drawn across a water course to catch the fish.

(5) a kind of net wherewith to catch the fish by a sudden immersion and
withdrawal. Both these names are Lâo or Thai Kao words.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PT.2]                                         THE SO AND PHUTAI                                       155

 

For tilling their fields they employ ploughs and harrows drawn by
buffaloes, For clearing the jungle in order to make rais, axes, knives,
hoes and spades are used. They cultivate rice, gourds, melons, Indian
corn, pepper, tomatoes, beans, sesamum, cotton, mulberry trees and yams.

They do some trade by selling cotton and silk cloth for money, but
no barter is carried out.

The Phuthai understand blacksmithing, carpentry, pottery-making,
weaving, sewing and embroidery and dyeing in a modest way, but cannot
make salt. Of weapons they possess guns, spears, cross bows and knives.
They honour and obey the head of the family whether it be the father,
mother, elder brother or elder sister. The head of the family exercises
his authority according to common law. The small children are looked
after as regards food, and are nursed if ill but no teaching is given them.

Adoption of children may take place when a pair of parents are too
poor to support their own child, or in case the mother dies, or she is too ill
to suckle it The infant may then be adopted by some childless people who
want a son or daughter. The adopting people must perform a ceremony
called klao om (กล่าวโอม). Before receiving the child, they must present
its parents or guardian with three baht and a buffalo asking for the
transfer of the child to them saying that they will bring it up as their
own child who shall perpetuate their name and be their heir. When the
parents or the guardian of the child have consented to the adoption of
their child, this is henceforth considered as having nothing further to do
with its natural parents or sisters or brothers. It must now consider its
adoptive parents as its real parents.

Marriage is gone through in eight stages. First the young man must
court the girl and propose to her. If she is agreeable and reciprocates
the young man's feelings he must bring her a gift of clothing or other
apparel, or the gift may consist of money from the amount of 3 baht
upwards. When the girl has accepted this pledge of love she cannot accept
any other man as husband. If she wants another man she must first re-
turn the gift to the original giver. If within a year after the girl has
accepted the gift from her suitor, one of her family is taken ill, due to some
fault having been committed against the ancestral spirits, a spirit doctor
is invited (to tend to the sick person). If this yau or mo lam song,
i. a.
a spirit doctor, who finds out the cause of the sickness by dancing and
spirit possession, proclaims that the sickness is due to the girl having

 

 

 

 

 

 

156                                    MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                            [VOL. XXIV]

 

accepted a love pledge from a young man the girl is called and questioned.
If she admits having been courted and accepted the love pledge, a mes-
sage is sent to the young man's family relating the facts which have led
to the offence against the ancestral spirits. The young man's parents are
asked to question the swain and to send a gift of a buffalo and 2 jars of
rice-liquor wherewith to conciliate the offended spirits. The family of the
young man will now call and question him, and, if he admits having done
as alleged, the required offering is sent to the girl's house consisting of one
bnffalo (if a buffalo cannot be had then a cow, a pig or even fowls may
do) and 2 jars of liquor as well as 3 baht in silver. Thereafter the buffalo,
cow, pig or chicken are killed and prepared for eating by cutting the flesh
into small pieces which, after mixing well with salt and pepper, is put into
bamboo receptacles (lam— ลาม), or may be hacked finely (koi— ก้อย), or
again it may be boiled or curried. Thus prepared, the sacrifice is placed on
four trays and carried inside the house where it is placed near the fore-
most part of the house. The eldest member of the family will next invite
the spirits to partake of the food offering. A few minutes after, the food
offering is taken outside again and eaten by the people assembled. The
young man's parents now present the parents of the girl with a pair of
wax candles and a pair of nosegays of flowers, and ask formally for the
girl to become their daughter-in-law. They receive the reply that the
family must first consult together about the matter. After due delibera-
tion and, in case of acceptance, a messenger is sent to the young man's
family to tell them to choose an auspicious day for the marriage. When
this day arrives, the young man's family arrange for the marriage tokens,
namely one basket with boiled rice and one with betel and siri leaves.
These are to be brought to the girl's house by a man who is neither a
widower nor a divorced person. Two small girls carrying the baskets
follow this go-between who, arrived at the bride's house, will present the
marriage tokens (เครื่องโอม) and ask for the girl to go and become
so-and-so's wife.

When the girl's parents have accepted the marriage tokens they fix
another day for repeating this gift of marriage tokens. The second time
the young man's family sends two baskets of boiled rice, and two with
betel and siri leaves, bananas and sugar cane again with the above-
mentioned go-between and, this time, four small girls. After having
accepted the gifts the girl's parents fix the day for sending the girl to her
prospective husband. At the same time they request the young man's

 

 

 

 

PT.2]                                         THE SO AND PHUTAI                                       157

 

family to prepare the necessary timber wherewith to build the young
couple's house on the day fixed for sending the bride. On the fixed date,
the young man's family erect the house near to the girl's house, on that
very same day, whereafter both sides now supply the necessary furniture
such as sleeping mats, mattresses, pillows and the various kinds of kitchen,
utensils. This done, the young man's family produces 24 small baskets.
In four of these are laid four eggs (in each basket), the remaining twenty
being filled with betel nuts and siri leaves, to this is added 4 jars of liquor.
These gifts are brought by small boys to the girl's house. The girl's
family must produce 4 jars of liquor, and the girl's ancestral spirits are
now invited to partake of these combined offerings. This is followed by a
feast. About 7 o'clock that evening, all the young, unmarried men of the
village escort the young bride-groom in procession to the new-built house.
Thereafter they shout in chorus "Little mother, come quickly. The little
father has already come, and he wants to eat, to chew betel and smoke
tobacco." The bride, followed by young unmarried girls carrying food,
betel and cigarettes, now goes in procession to the new house and joins
her husband in a common meal. The assembled young folks also eat with
much merriment and finally depart. After the young couple have been
living together for 10, 20 or 30 days they must offer up sacrifices to the
spirits once more. On the hubsand's side, a sacrifice consisting of one
chicken, one jar of liquor, two salu'ng in money (50 satang), one bowl,
one folding knife and one piece of brass (if no brass, red satang will do) is
offered to the spirits of the wife's family. This is called plaeng ok (แปลง
ออก) i. e. the girl's separation from her family spirits. In the future she
must only worship her husband's ancestral spirits. The second stage is
called fachv, (ฟะชู) and is carried out just one year after the first ceremony.
The wife's family informs the husband's that their ancestral spirits desire
to hïtfachû (ฮีดฟะชู) and that they therefore must present 4 jars of liquor
and 4 chicken to the spirits.

 

On the auspicious day, the husband's family accordingly bring the
requested sacrifice, as well as a cup and one red satang to their daughter-
in-law's parents' house. This done, a small feast follows, and thereafter
the old people now teach the young married couple to behave well and
rightly, and in case of any wrong doing, to inform their elders in order
that these may assist in smoothing out the trouble. The young couple are
under no circumstances permitted to fight with one another.

 

 

 

 

 

 

158                                    MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                            [VOL. XXIV]

 

The third stage is called kin dông (กินดอง) and takes place 3 years
after the seoond ceremony. The wife's family then tells the husband's
family that their ancestral spirits desire to lut kin dông (ฮีดกินดอง) and
that the husband's family must offer a buffalo, eight jars of liquor and
from 70 to 90 chicken as well as 3 baht in money to the spirit. On the
auspicious day the husband's family bring the requested1 offerings to the
wife's family's house The wife's family must also contribute to this feast
a pig, 70 to 80 chicken and 8 jars of liquor. The animals are killed and
prepared as mentioned above, offered to the spirits and thereafter eaten
during a common feast.

The fourth stage is called kin kao.(กินกาว) and takes place 10 years
after ceremony No. 3. The wife's family informs her husband's that their
ancestral spirits desire to hit kin kao (ฮีดกินกาว) and will they please
contribute a pig and 70 to 80 chicken, 16 eggs, a cast net, a mong (see
footnote 3 on page 12 ), a sword, a spoon, one pair of chopsticks, a copper
kettle, a dipper, 3 baht 2 salu'ng in money, 10 betel nuts, a lump of salt,
a tray, one cup and 10 jars of liquor as well as an empty liquor jar ! On
the wife's family's side is contributed a pig, 70 to 80 chicken and 16 jars
of liquor. The food is then prepared, offered to the spirits and thereafter
consumed during a big food and drinking bout.

The fifth stage is called kin chôt (กินชอด) and takes place 10 years
:after ceremony No. 4. The wife's family then informs the husband's that
their ancestral spirits want to hit kin chût (ฮีดกินชอด) and would they
please contribute a buffalo, 2 jars of liquor and 3 baht in money, as an
offer to the spirits. The husband's family must do so accordingly on the
auspicious day, but the wife's family do not contribute anything this time.

The sixth stage is called mu thorn rôy (หมูถมรอย) and takes place 8
years after ceremony No. 5. The wife's family again approaches the
husdand's saying that this time their ancestral spirits want to hit mil thorn
rôy. Would they please offer to them a pig and a jar of liquor. On the
auspicious day the husband's family bring the requested offerings to the
wife's family's house. Again the wife's family do not contribute anything.

The seventh stage is called kai cha pok nbkcha hom (ไก่ชาปกนกชา
ฮม ) and takes place 6 years after ceremony No. 6. The wife's family
ask the husband's to offer a chicken and a jar of liquor to their ancestral
spirits.

 

 

 

 

 

PT.2]                                         THE SO AND PHUTAI                                       159

 

The eighth stage is called khwai phuk thun ( ควายผูกถุน ) i.e., to
tether the buffalo under the house,
and takes place 10 years after cere-
mony No. 7. The wife's family informs her husband's that their ancestral
spirits desire to hit khwai phuk thun. Would they please offer
2 buffaloes, mother and calf, a decorated jar ( ไหล้า ), 3 baht in money
and one jar of liquor. The buffaloes are tethered underneath the house
of the wife's parents, but only the calf is killed and offered as a sacrifice
to the spirits. If no buffaloes are available, a gift of 6 baht in money
may replace the buffaloes.

At the sacrifices and feastings at the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 8th stage, all
the inmates of the same house as well as their relatives living in other
houses must take part.

Besides making hit from number 1 to 8 there are two other
ceremonies. For instance in case the husband does rot want to make
hit so many times but prefers to make it once and for all, in which case,
however the wife is not considered to have ceased worshipping her own
ancestral spirits or to have been sépara ed from her kith and kin, he must
contribute a buffalo, 8 sticks of silver rang - ราง - (6) weighing 30 baht,
and 2 jars of liquor, for a sacrifice to his wife's ancestral spirits after
which the girl is his for good. Another kind of ceremony by which the
girl is separated for good and all from her ancestral spirits, consists of
offering a grand sacrifice to the girl's ancestral spirits. It includes one
buffalo, 8 rang of silver of 30 bahi's weight, one elephant, one slave and
2 gonggongs of which one must have a circumference of 6 gam, the other
of 5 gam. (7)

With regard to the ceremonies of daeng hit from the 1st to the 8th-
stage, if any of the partners of the marriage should die before all the stages-
have been gone through with, their children or grandchildren must go on
with these ceremonies till they end ! No exemption is permitted unless
there are no children or grandchildren to carry them out.

Drawing and painting is practised by a few people, as well as a little
carving in wood. Of musical instruments the Phuthai possess reeci flute
(Khaen), flute (Pi), violin, phii/a (bamboo musical instrument). They
practise a kind of dancing called lam lâo. (ลำลาว)

_____________________________________________________________

(6) Formerly such rang -were used as money in the provinces lying on both
sides of the middle course of the Mekhong liver. For particulars, see Dr. R.S. le
May's standard work The Coinage of Siam,

( 7 ) 1 gam= the width of the fist.

 

 

 


 

160                                    MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                            [VOL. XXIV]

 

Of literature they have Phra Wet (Wetmndorn), Phra Tarn and the
Karaket Singcliai, written in Lâo. Of the fairy tales, they like Karaket
Singcliai
most.

COMPUTATION OP TIME.

Six o'clock a. m. they call morning, at 9 o'clock it is พองาย, at 10
o'clock พองายแก่, at 11 o'clock พอ แก เคอ เที่ยง, at 12 o'clock is is พอตาเง็น

เที่ยง. At 1 o'clock p. m. it is ตาเง็นค่าย, at 2 p. m. ตาเง็นค่ายหลวง, at 3 p. m.

เวลาตีกลองแลง, at 4p.m. พอหนึ้งข้าวแลงเฮือนหลวง, at 5 p. m. เวลาควายตอมทุ่ง,

at 6 p. m. เวลาหนูออกรู at 7 p. m. เวลามืดสะลุ่ม, at 8 p. m. เวลากินข้าวแลง

at 9 p.m. เวลาเด็กนอนดัก, from 10 p. m. to 12 night they call เที่ยงคืน, 3

a. m. is called เวลาไก่หันนอเถื่อหนึ่ง, 4 am. เวลาไก่หัน, 5 a. m. is เวลา

ไก่หัน ๓ เถื่อ.

Their months are du'an chiang {du'an ai—November-December).
du'an yi, du'an sain, du'an si onwards to du'an sibsong.

Pi Chuat is their first year in the zodiac

Their medicine consists of extracts of various roots ; real medical
knowledge is absent.

In the fifth month, March-April, the Phuthai worship all the images
of the Buddha kept in their temples.

They erect small sheds in the temple grounds and place the Buddha
images in these sheds. The images are constantly laved with water run-
ning through a bamboo tube down over them. The supply of water is
made constant by help of a kind of revolving machinery. They also offer
wax candles, joss sticks and flowers to the images. Towards sunset the
monks sing stanzas of the holy scriptures, and this goes on for 9 days in
succession.

The Phuthai also worship their ancestors' spirits who are believed to
abide in and protect their homes. If sickness comes a spirit doctor is
consulted (หมอมาเหยาหรือลำส่อง), and if his verdict is that the sickness is

eaused by the anger of a spirit (an ancestral one), a sacrifice to him or

them must be made by killing a buffalo, a pig or fowls in order to obtain
the cure of the sick person.

They worship the images of Buddha by kow towing three times. By
doing so they believe that they obtain merit for the next incarnation.

 

 

 

 

 

PT.2]                                         THE SO AND PHUTAI                                       161

 

They also possess temples with monks of the Buddhist faith. When
children are born there are no ceremonies such as surrounding the bouse
with a consecrated thread or shaving the hair on the infant's head.

In cases of death the house is "closed" (with a consecrated thread ? )
for 3 days. Before a corpse may be interred or cremated monks must
be invited to sing stanzas in the house for three nights beginning at 7
o'clock in the evening.

When the monks have sung, girls and young men will sit around and
chat the whole night till sunrise for three nights. The burials and cre-
mations are carried out in one and the same place, but nothing is done in
the way of taking special care of such places.

Like other Thai Buddhists the Phuthai also invite the monks to offer
prayers and sing stanzas in their houses. No sacrifices to the earth
spirit are made nor are any other supernatural forces worshipped.

 

                                       TRANSLATOR'S COMMENTS

 

The Phuthai are a branch of the far-flung Thai people, and those of
them, who are now domiciled on this side of Mekhong, all came from the
province of Cammon in French Laos about 100 years ago. According to
their traditions, Mu'ang Mahachai was formerly their capital, and they
were governed by a Chao Chiwit. They are divided into a great num-
ber of groups or clans Whose dialects or patois is said to differ somewhat.
We have been able to obtain the names of those clans, but do not pretend
that the following list is complete. There are Phuthai Wang, Kabong,
Katak, Sae and Saebon, all according to the information given by an old
Phuthai man. The number of the Phuthai is unknown, and it might be
very difficult to find out. We should say that, estimated quite roughly,
in 1915, there could not have been less than 100,000 of them. From the
eastern parts of the former circle of Udorn, the Phuthai have wandered
southwards through the former circles of Roi Et and Ubon until they have
arrived at the foot of the Dong Rek mountains. In changvat Sakon Na-
khon they are found in ampho' Warichaphum, Sawang Dindaen (present
name unknown), Panna Nikhom and Sakon Nakhon. In changvat
Nakhon Phanom they are met with in ampho' Renu Nakhon and Nong
Sung. In changvat Kalasindhu they are found in ampho' Kutchinarai
and Sahatsakan. They have settled in changvat Ubon in ampho'

 

 

 

 

 

 

162                                    MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                            [VOL. XXIV]

 

Khemmarat ( sub-ampho' Chanuman ); Amnât Charoen ; Yasothorn and
Warinohamrab (opposite Ubon town ) and right down in the southern
part of ampho' Detudom, in sub-amphn' Bua Bnntharik at the Dong Rek
chain. Finally there are Phuthai in the ampho' districts of Kantararom,
Uthumphornphisai and Khong (old name, Bâsoisalai), all belonging to
changvat Srisakët (old name Khukandh). The number cf the Phuthai
living in changvat Ubon in 1915 was about 20,000 and in changvat
Srisaket about 8,000. We do not share the author's contempt of theee
people whom we have always found hospitable and gay, nor were their
manners at all uncivil. It is, however, true that during the harvest
time, the morality of the young people is very lax ; so lax, it is said, that
a girl may have sexual intercourse with a number of young men during
the nights they watch the gathered rice crop in the fields. They build a
kind of shelter with the sheaves, inside which the young people of both
sexes sleep together. As will be seen from the information given by the
author, it is both a costly and longish affair to marry a Phuthai girl pro-
perly. As a matter of fact, if all the ceremonies mentioned are really to
be gone through with, it will take as many as 48 years to finish them! If
the married couple became husband and wife at the age of 18 years, they
will then have arrived at their 66th year before they become " really "
married, i.e. before the wife has become completely severed from her
family's ancestral spirits. However, to a couple with many married
daughters, this system may prove quite lucrative. It may have been in-
vented, more or less, by some ancient Phuthai chief with many daughters!
In the districts peopled by Phuthai in former Eastern Udorn much cattle
was reared, and the young Phuthai men used to drive the cattle to Burma
for sale there, sometimes being absent for a year or two even. As will
be seen many of the customs of the So and the Phuthai are almost iden-
tical but it may be surmised that the Sô had received their marriage
customs from the more civilised Phuthai. On the other hand the occur-
rence of curly hair among some Phuthai may be due to former intermar-
riages with the negroid So people.

As regards the above-mentioned loose manners of the young people
during harvest time, it may be added that according to Granet in his
Fêtes et chansons anciennes en Chine, Paris, 1919, such were the cus-
toms in vogue also among the ancient Chinese, which is amply proved
by the amorous songs contained in the poems of the Che-king that
were sung at the annual spring and autumn festivals. The sexual in-

 

 

 

 

 

 

PT.2]                                         THE SO AND PHUTAI                                       163

 

tercourse between the young men and girls must be considered as part of
some very old fertility cult which also included the alternative singing by
the young people, their playing the ball (what our Mon call len sabâ), as
well as the sacrifice to the earth god, and the throwing of water on one
another. All this goes back to the feudal ages of China, long since passed
away, but still found among the so-called white and black Thai in Tong-
king and French Laos who are still in the feudal stage.

Such promiscuousness is said also to have taken place in ancient
Scandinavia some 1500 to 2000 years ago, at the annual human sacrifices
to Frey, the god of fertility, according to Mr. Gudmund Schutte in his
Homely Paganism (Hjemligt Hedenskab).

LANGUAGE.

A few words of introduction to the study of the vocabularies of the
So and Phuthai languages, as given hereafter, will, we hope, be found
useful for the better understanding of these. As will be seen the voca-
bularies are arranged in four columns; namely English, Thai, So and
Phuthai, according to the questionnaire of the Thailand Research Society.
To these has been added a fifth column, which gives the equivalent So
words, where such are found in, the Right Reverend Bishop M. J. Cuaz's
Etude sur la Langue Laocienne (8), which, besides vocabularies in
French, Thai, Lao, Saek, Annamite, So and Phu Thu'ng, contains a brief
study of the Lào language. This additional column has been found neces-
sary as the official, who took down the So words, has evidently been
unable.to catch the many final double r's and l's so customary in the
Môn-Khmer languages.

In romariizing the So and Phuthai words, the official system for ro-
manizing the Thai language has been followed in general.

 

         As already stated the So language belongs to the Môn-Khmer section

of the Austro-Asiatic or Malayo-Polynesian language group. To readers,

who are acquainted with Mon, Khmer or any of the KhS or Moi languages
of Indochina, the relationship of So with these will quickly be seen, due
to the many common words such as sè or asè for horse ; kon for child or
little one ; dach, dak, da, or do all for water or river, mat, for eye, and
so on. The So dialects, as spoken in the Kutchinarai district and in the

__________________________________________________________

( 8 ) Mgr. Cuaz's book was published in 1904 by Imprimerie de la Société des
Missions Etrangères, Hongkong.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


164                                  MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                            [VOL. XXIV]

 

changvats of Sakon Nakhon and Nakhon Phanom, seem to differ some
what, but in the main they are identical. As will also be seen, both
dialects have borrowed some words from the Thai or Lao language.

As far as we know, no all-embracing study of the Môn-Khmer
languages has yet been undertaken and finished, though the distinguished
philologist Reverend Father Wilhelm Schmidt has done pioneer work in
his well-known Die Môn-Khmer Vôlker, ein Bindesglied zwischen
Vôlkern Zentralasien and Austronesien. We understand, however,
that the Ecole Française d'Extrême-Orient is now collecting material for
a great dictionary embracing all the various Môn-Khmer and Malayo-
Polynesian languages of our Indochinese sub continent.

Concerning the Phuthai vocabulary, we are afraid that the compiler
has also made many mistakes especially as regards the vowel sounds such
as u'a for example, which almost does not exist in Phuthai.

Monseigneur Cuaz says in his above-quoted Etude that the Phuthai
(white, black and red, according to the colour of their womenfolk's
dresses) are the descendants of Thai and Chinese who have come from
Kwangsi. Their greatest number is found in the old principality of Hua
Phan Hà. They write with a brush and Chinese ink, while the Lâo use
pencil or stylus. In spite of certain transformations, which their alphabet
has undergone, one finds a common origin with the Thai Noi or Lâo
letters.

Due to the nearness to China and Annam many of the words of their
dialect have changed forms as will be seen of the following :—
The vowel sound ai becomes in Phuthai o thus phai becomes pho'

 

 regarding_1

 

 

 

 

 

PT.2]                                         THE SO AND PHUTAI                                       165

 

Example: The water reaches to over the knee is, in Thai, Nam
thuam hua khao ; and in Phuthai, Nam thorn ho hoa.

There are, however, many exceptions where the words are unchanged
from the Thai form such as fire being still fat, and in is still nai but
do not want, in Thai mai yak, in Lao bo yak, becomes meyo' ; an excep-
tion is to ien, au eel in Lâo, which is to yen in Phuthai. So far Mon-
seigneur Cuaz.

When comparing our vocabulary with the excellent Dictionnaire Tay
Blanc-Français compiled by Captain Georges Minot of the French
army (9), the differences are seen to be much greater. However, to
quote Captain Minot : "The Tay, in the original sense of that word,
inhabit, mixed with other races (peoples) a country which extends from
the Upper Yangtze to Bangkok (it should be Singora), and from the
Irawaddi to the island of Hainan. When one knows the language of one
of the Tay groups, one possesses the key to the languages (dialects) of all
the others, and only a short adaptation is sufficient in order to understand
for example the White Thai or to talk the Black Tay, the Th.o, the Lu',
the Lâo, the Thailanders or the Shan, only to enumerate the principal
dialects of this great linguistic family." From our own experience of
many years' sojourn in Northeast Thailand—Phak Isân—where we had
to do with Thai or Lao Wieng (chand) who change the u'a into ia: the
Thai or Lâo Kao, the Thai Khorat, the Thai Phu u'n, the Thai Yo, the
Thai Yu'ai and the many clans and septs of the Phuthai, we oan quite
confirm the dictum of Captain Minot.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

____________________________________________________________

(9) Published in Bulletin de l'Ecole Française d'Extrême-Orient. Volume XL.
—1940—Part 1

 

 

 


 


 

166                                         MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                                  [VOL. XXIV]

 

VOCABULARIES.

English

Thai

so

So (Cuaz)

Phuthai

Heaven

สวรรค ฟ้า

Mâlong po'ng

Malong

Mo'ng fa

Sun

พระอาทิจ แดด

Matmanâng, Puak

Phuok

Tâ-ngen

Moon

พระจันท เดือน

Mâchai, Chai

Mixai

Do'n

Star

ดาว

Mâdorr

Torr

Dâo

The sun rises

พระอาทิจขึ้น

Matmanâng chon

Ta-ngen hu'n

The sun sets

พระอาทิจตก

Matmanâng thu

Tâ-ngen tok

Cloud

เมค

Ramû'

Ramu'll

Mêk

Bain

ฝน

Ma

Mu'a Pâh

Fon

Wind

ลม

Kuya

Kuiall

Lôm

Thunder

ฟ้าร้อง เสียงฟ้าร้อง

Kro'm

Teh khru'm

Fa dan g

Lightning

ฟ้าแลบ

Trierr

Trierr

Fa malâb lu'am

Rainbow

รุ้งกินน้ำ

Marông Maraeng

Darr prriong

Hung kin nâm

East

ทิสตะวันออก

Manâng lo

Ndhri lien

Tâ-ngen ok

West

ทิสตะวันตก

Manâng thù

Ndhri gut

Tâ'ngen tok

North

ทิสเหนือ

Yapo'ng

Po'ng

Nu'a khong

South

ทิสไต้

Yado'b

Do'b

To'khong

Earth

ดิน แผ่นดิน

Kutaek

Kutek

Khi din Phaeudin

Plain

ทุ่ง

Tong

Thung

Mountain

พูเขา

Ko

Koh

Phu

Cavern

ถ้ำ

Kû'b

Tham

Path

หนทาง ทาง

Banâ

Thang

Water

น้ำ

Do'

Do'

Nâm

Stream

ห้วย

Âho

Âho

Huai

River

แม่น้ำ

Ampri do'

Mbi do'

Lam nâm

Lake

ทเลสาป

Thalë sâp

Salé sâp

Sea

ทเล

Thalê

Salé

Swamp

หนอง บึง

Tuang

Tuong

Nong Bu'ng

Mud

โคลน

Tom

Khi bo

Dust

ฝุ่นผง คลี ละออง

Ro

Khi fun

Sand

ซาย

Chua

Singat

Khi din sai

Stone

หิน ก้อนหิน

Korâ

Kôll Chipiek

Hin, Kon hin

 

 


 

 

 

PT.2]                                         THE SO AND PHUTAI                                               167

 

VOCABULARIES.

English

Thai

so

So (Cuaz)

Phuthai

Gold

ทอง ทองคำ

Tong yaeng

Jeng

Thong-kham

Silver

เงิน

Pra

Pho'ra

Ngo'n

Iron

เหล็ก

Tâk

Tak

Lek

Copper

ทองเหลือง

Tong lu'ang

Thong Kuxao

Thong lu'ang

Lead

ตะกั่ว

Chikua

Khi kua

Khikua

Tin

ดีบุก

Lek piak

Lek Piak

Fire

ไฟ

Ui

H'ui

Fai

Smoke

ควัน

Phiak

Kwan

Ashes

เท่า ขี้เท่า

Bo

Bo'h

Khi thao

Charcoal

ถ่าน ถ่านไฟ

Kucha

Komi

To light the fire

จุดไฟ

Chong ui

Anhu h'ui, Taku't

Tit fai

To put out the fire

ดับไฟ

Âbot ui

Along h'ui

Mot fai

Forest

ป่า

Cho'k

Chiru'ng

Kong pâ

Tree

ต้นไม้

Tano'm âlong

Tano'm along

Kôk mai

Root

ราก รากต้นไม้

Tari along

Ha mai

Trunk

ต้น ลำต้นของต้นไม้

Ton along

Kôk mai

Branch

กิ่ง

Kra âlong

Ngâ

Bark

เปลือก

Andôk

Po'

Bud

ตุ่มใบไม้แขนง

Afcok Dai-âlong

Pao bo mai

Flower

ดอกไม้

Piara

Pierr

Dok mai

Fruit

ลูกไม้

Abaug

Pole

Mâk mai

Leaf

ใบไม้

Silâ

Xala

Bo' mai

Grass

หย้า

Bat

Coconut palm

ต้นมะพร้าว

Tano'm maphrao

Kôk mapbrâo-

Coconut

ลูกมะพร้าว

Palai maphrao

Nuai maphrao

Areca palm

ต้นหมาก

Tano'm manâng

Kok mâk

Areca nut

ลูกหมาก

Palai manâng

Panang

Nuai mâk

Betel

พลู

Palu

Phalu

Phlu

Banana tree

ต้นกล้วย

Tano'm priât

Tano'm priet

Kôk kuai

Banana

กล้วย

Priât

Priet

Kuai

Orange tree

ต้นส้ม

Tano'm yo

Tano'm piai

Kok som

Orange

ลูกส้ม

Yo

Piai

Som

 

 

 


 

 

 

168                                        MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                                  [VOL. XXIV]

 

VOCABULARIES.

English

Thai

so

So (Cuaz)

Phuthai

Lemon tree

ต้นมะนาว

Tano'm manao

Tano'm chanh

Kok manao

Lemon

ลูกมะนาว

Palai manao

Chanh

Nuai manao

Mango tree

ต้นมะม่วง

Tano'm mamuang

Tano'm pru'ell

Kok mamông

Mango

ลูกมะม่วง

Palai mamuang

Pru'ell

Nuai mamông

Jack tree

ต้นขนุน

Tano'm Khanum

Tauo'm manai

Tok mami

Sugar cane

อ้อย ลำอ้อย ต้นอ้อย

Adal, Ton adal

Tano’m adal

Kutao

Oi, Lam oi, Kok oi

Pepper tree

ต้นพริกไทย

Tano'm Kho't

Do' phrik thai

Tobacco

ยาเส้น ยาสูบ

Hu't, Hu't yot

Hu't

Hu't

Tea

ไบชา น้ำชา

Sa do' Sâ

Cucumber

แตงกวา

Kaelamas

Taeng kwâ

Maize

ข้าวโพด

Chi pb

Sali

Bean

ถั่ว

Chi tong

Chitong

Tho

Onion

หัวหอม

Plo' hôm

Hua phak bua

Garlic

กะเทียม

Phak kathiem

Phak thiam

Sweet potato

มัน

Prong

Ponglang

Men

Pimento

พริก

Khu't

Blich

Makwit

Paddy

ข้าวเปลือก

Saro

Thrro chibat

Khao po'

Husked rice

ข้าวสาร

Aso'

Atso'

Khao sân

Boiled rice

ข้าวสวย

Awâ

Awua

Khao khaeng

Glutinous rice

ข้าวเหนียว

Awa sibet

Thrro chibat

Khao nio

Rice field

ทุ่งนา

Tong thing

Taling

Thuug na

To sow rice

หว่านข้าว ปลูกข้าว

Tru' so, Chi chat so

Wan khao, Pu khao

To plant out rice

ถอนข้าว ดำข้าว

Lok so, Dam so

Luk kâ, Dam nâ

To cut the rice

เกี่ยวข้าว

Bach so

Kio khao

To bind the rice in sheaves

รวมต้นข้าวเปนฟ่อน

Atob so kino'

Fon khao

To boil rice

ต้มข้าว หุงข้าว

Hung awâ, Tom awâ

H lay avuah

Khaeng khao, Hung khao

Mortar

ครกตำข้าว

Tapan

Tapall

Sôk dam khao

Pestle

สากตำข้าว

An tri

Ndhro

Sa dam khao

Rice pot

หม้อข้าว

Adae

Adhae

Mo khao


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PT.2]                                         THE SO AND PHUTAI                                                169

 

VOCABULARIES.

English

Thai

so

So (Cuaz)

Phuthai

Rai

ไร่

Trai

Shrai

Hai

Buffalo

ควาย กะบือ

Chi-chiriak

Chiriek

Kwai

Ox

วัว โคตัวผู้

Antro',Tro' tang ga

Ndhro

Ngo

Wild ox

วัวกะทิง วัวป่า

Si ngo ru do'kruang

Mo'i

Cow

วัวตัวเมีย

Dokan

Ngo mae

Goat

แพะ

Bae

Bae

Cat

แมว

Maeo

Meo

Maeo

Dog

หมา

Acho

Acho

Ma

To bark

เห่า

Koro

Hao

To bite

กัด

Kab

Kab

Khab

Pig

หมู

Âlik

Alik

Mu

Deer

กวาง

Mayo

Man hoh

Kwang

Squirrel

กะรอก

Prok

Kahok ,

Bat

หนู

Kunai

Kunai

Nu

Wild boar

หมูป่า

Alik krong

Mu pâ

Monkey

ลิง

Tamu'n

Tamu'rr

Ling

Panther

เสือดาว

Kulâ mantôn

So' lai

Tiger

เสือ

Kulâ

Kula

So'

Bear

หมี

Chi kao

Mee

Horse

ม้า

Asae

Ashe

Ma

Elephant

ช้าง

Achieng

Achieng (xarr)

Sang

Rhinoceros

แรด

Bamâi

Haet

Buffalo's horn

เขาควาย

Takoi chiriak

Hao kwai

Cat's claw

เล็บแมว

Chi ret

Leb maeo

Dog's tail

หางแมว

Soi

Hâng ma,

Wild boar's tusk

เขี้ยวหมูป่า

Klôi

Haeo mu pâ

Horse's forelock

ผมหน้าม้า

S ok

Phum ma

Elephant's trunk

งวงช้าง

Baohu'

Ngông sang

Male

ตัวผู้

Tâkâ

Tong

Tua tok

Female

ตัวเมีย

Kan

Kan

Tua mae

Bird

นก

Chu'm

Chu'm

Nok

Cock

ไก่ตัวผู้

Athuai tong

Ndhruei tong

Kai tua phu

 


 

 

 

170                                        MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                                  [VOL. XXIV]

 

VOCABULARIES.

English

Thai

so

So (Cuaz)

Phuthai

Hen

ไก่ตัวเมีย

Athuai kan

Ndhruei kan

Kai tua mae

Duck

เป็ด

Thrâ

Pet

Crow

อีกา

Siâk

Xa ak

Turtle dove

นกเขา

Chipan

Nôk khao

Beak

ปากนก

Bochu'm

Pa nôk

Wing

ปีกนก

Lampaeng

Pi nôk

Feather

ขนนก

Sok ohu'm

Nu nôk

Nest

รังนก

Klong

Hang nôk

Egg

ไข่

Chiraeng

Chirell, Ndrell

Kai

To lay eggs

ออกไข่

Charaeng lo

Ok lu

To fly

บิน

Pren

Bin

Fish

ปลา

Sia

Teia

Pa

Shell

หอย

Klo

Hoi

Fin

หูปลา

Kû tun

Hu pâ

Crocodile

จรเข้

Tru

Ndhru

Khae

Shrimp

กุ้ง

Asom

Axuom

Chung

Crab

ปู

Ariang

Ari

Land tortoise

เต่าบก

Pit tapek

Pit

Tao phëk

River tortoise

เต่าน้ำจืด

Pit do'

Tao nam

Sea turtle

เต่าทเล

Pit put, Pit tuang

Tao sale

Snake

งู

Ku seng

Kuxenh

Ngû

Lizard

จิ้งจก จิ้งแหลน

Acho hut aloa

Yang yat

Ya hu'am, Chak Ko

Frog

กบ

Acho

Kub

Toad

กิ้งคก คางคก

Kùalun

Khangkha

Fly

มแลงวัน

Aroi

Aroi

Moeng Hun

Mosquito

ยุง

Rayung

Bjong

Yung

Butterfly

ผีเสื้อ

Kharang Klâb

Kang khrab

Maeng Bo'

Caterpillar

หนอน

Lampang

Mbang

Non

Ant

มด

Simut

Ximut

Mot

Spider

มแลงมุม

Apiang

Apieng, Ku

Maeng mum

Bee

ตัวผึ้ง

Taràng khankuia

Khierr, Khiell

Pho'ng

Honey

น้ำผึ้ง

Do' khia

Do' Khiell

Nam pho'ng

 

 

 

 

 

PT.2]                                         THE SO AND PHUTAI                                                  171

 

VOCABULARIES.

English

Thai

so

So (Cuaz)

Phuthai

Wax

ขี้ผึ้ง

Kaera

Laguet, Na

Khi pho'ng

Human being

มนุสชาติ

Cho' lakuai

Bang Kong

Ben khon chât

Man

คนผู้ชาย

Bâng kong

Bapai, Kumur)

Khon phu chai

Woman

คนผู้หยิง

Bapai

Con rang kong

Khon phu ying

Boy

เด็กชาย

Anaen

Can râpai

Dek noi phu chai

Girl

เด็กหยิง

Banaen râpât

Con ra, nen

Dek noi phu ying

Child

เด็กเล็ก

Ku'i

Ayak

Dek noi

Old man

คนแก่

Thao

Aja

Phu thao

Husband

ผัว

Ayak

Mba

Pho

Wife

เมีย

Ampai

Mbi

Me

Father

พ่อ

Ampa

Con rang kong

Pho

Mother

แม่

Ampae

Con râpai

Mae

Son

ลูกชาย

Kon

---

Luchâi

Daughter

ลูกสาว

Kon râpai

 

Lu sao

Grandson

หลานชายชั้นที่ 1

Chong ao'

 

Lin châi chan thi nu'ng

Granddaughter

หลานสาวชั้นที่ 1

Chong ra pai ao'

_

Lan sao chan thi nu'ng

Nephew

หลานชายชั้นที่ 2

Chong nâi

 

Lan châi chan thi song

Niece

หลานสาวชั้นที่ 2

Chong râpai nâi

Lan sao chan thi song

Elder brother

พี่ชาย

Ai

Ai

Ai

Elder sister

พี่สาว

O'i

O'i

O'i

Younger brother

น้องชาย

Saem

Êm

Nong châi

Younger sister

น้องสาว

Saem râpai

Em

Nong sao

Cousin

ลูกพี่ลูกน้อง

Kon saem kon ai

---

Lu ai lu nong

Grandfather

ตา ปู่

Yae Ao'

Mba thao, Ang

Tâ, pû

Grandmother

ย่า ยาย

Nâi ao' phu'

Ngai

Yai ya

Body

ตัว ร่างกาย

Bae

Be

To

Head

หัว

Prô'

Plo'

Ho

Hair

ผม

Sok

Sok

Phom

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

172                                        MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                                  [VOL. XXIV]

 

VOCABULARIES.

English

Thai

so

So (Cuaz)

Phuthai

Face

หน้า

Bang

Skull

หัวกะโหลก

Khâng pro'

Hua kadong

Forehead

หน้าผาก

Aliak

Nâ pa

Eye

ตา ลูกตา

Mat, Klong Mat

Mat

Ta

Cheek

แก้ม

Tabaeng

Kaem

Ear

หู

Kutun

Kuturr

Hu

Nose

จมูก ตะหมูก

Mo

Muh

Dang

Mouth

ปาก

Bo

Bo'

Subpa

Lip

ฝีปาก

Baek

Tamu'rr bo'

Kimpa

Tooth

ฟัน

Kinaeng

Chineng

Fan haeo

Tongue

ลิ้น

Lai

 

Lin

Chin

ขากันไกร ขาตะไกร

Tabâng

Ko'ng

Katai khang

Beard

หนวดที่คาง

Sôk ko'ng

Sôk bek

Nuat thang lum

Neck

คอ

Takong

Takong

Kho

Shoulder

บ่า

A pang

Armpit

รักแร้

Klâb

Honghae

Arm

แขน

Balaeng

Haen

Hand

มือ

Âti

Ati

Mû'

Bight hand

มือขวา

*Balaeng Asam

Ati gaha tam

Mû' kwa

Left hand

มือซ้าย

*Balaeng Awae

Ati gaha averr

Mû' sâi

Finger

นิ้ว

Noi

Nio

Nail

เล็บ

Kirae

Lêb

Chest

อก หัวอก

Atae

Athra

Âng

Breasts

นม

To

To

Num

Belly

ท้อง

Fung

Pung

Thong

Navel

สะดือ

Talui

Sai bu

Back

หลัง สันหลัง

Klung

Lang

Thigh

ขาอ่อน

Lu yom

Hâ on

Knee

หัวเข่า

Âku'n

Hua dôi

Leg

ขา

Lu

Foot

ตีน เท้า

Yu'ng

Yu'ng

Tin

_______________________________________________________________

*The inquirer has taken clown balaeng = arm, instead of Ati = hand.

 

 

 

 

 

PT.2]                                         THE SO AND PHUTAI                                                  173

 

VOCABULARIES.

English

Thai

so

So (Cuaz)

Phuthai

Toe

หัวแม่ตีน

Ku'm yu'ng

Mae tin

Skin

หนัง

U'ng kaen

Nang

Flesh

เนื้อ

Sat

Sech

Chin

Body hairs

ขน

Sok

Hun

Bone

กะดูก

Angkhâng

Katu

Blood

เลือด

Ahâm

Lu'at

Tears

น้ำตา

Alâng mat

Nam ta

Sweat

เหงื่อ เหื่อ

Do' o'k

U'k (Loh)

Ho'

Milk

น้ำนม

Do' to

Do' toh

Nam num

Urine

น้ำปสาวะ

Do' ralôm

Nam yio

Chinese

คนจีน เจ๊ก

Chin, Chek

Chek

Thai

คนไทย

Khun Thai

Khun Thai

To eat rice

กินข้าว

Châ âwa

Chia awua

Kin khao

To drink water

กินน้ำ

Hoi do'

Ngoch do'

Kin nam

To drink spirit

กินเหล้า

Hoi blong

Ngoch do' blong

; Kin lao

To be drunk

เมา

Bun

Mao

Salt

เกลือ

Po

Poh

Ko'

Pepper

พริกไทย

Au kho't thai

Prik thai

Sugar

น้ำตาล

Do' dal

Nam tân

Oil

น้ำมัน

Do' ansaeng

Nam man.

Fat

ไข

Saeng

Man

Waist cloth

เสื้อ

Sirae

Chire

So'

Trousers

กางเกง

do

Kong keng

Sông

Loin cloth

ผ้านุ่ง

Hralai

Rlai du'nga

Phâ nung

Clothes

เสื้อผ้า

Bo'r Pri

So' phâ

Girdle

เข็มขัด

Ba aeo

Bâ aeo

Turban

ผ้าโพกหัว

Bo'r kian pro'

Khian ho

Button

กะดุม

Mating

Mating

Button hole

รูกะดุม

Hong

Hu mating

Shoes

เกือก

Ko'm

 

Ko'm

Hat

หมวก

Môk

Mok

Bing

แหวน

Simaet

Waen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

174                                        MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                                  [VOL. XXIV]

 

VOCABULARIES.

English

Thai

so

So (Cuaz)

Phuthai

Earring

ต่างหู

Tâng

Krachon

Bracelet

กำไลมือ

Chi pan lalaeng

Kong haen

Anklering

กำไลตีน

Chi pan yu'ng

Kamlai khaeng

Necklace

สร้อยคอ

Sâi soi

Sâi soi kho

Cotton thread

ด้ายฟอก

Bo'n pho

Fâi khâ

Silk thread

ด้ายไหม

Bo'n mai

Fâi mai

Cotton cloth

ผ้าสำลี

Lai khira

Phâ samli

Silk

ผ้าแพร

Pre

Phâ phae

To sew

เย็บ

Yi

Yih

Yib

To weave

ทอ

Tâl yarô

Tam

Loom

กี่ทอผ้า

Ki

Ki tam lue

To dress

ไส่เสื้อผ้า

Rot yo'r

Nung so' phâ

To undress

ถอดเสื้อผ้า

To yo'r

Kae so' phâ

Village

นิคม หมู่บ้าน

Bon dum

Vill

Bân

Straw

ฟาง

Sôk

Fo'ng

Garden

สวน

Suan

Tsuen

Suan

House

บ้านเรือน

Win dum

Dung

Bân, hu'an

Door

ประตู

Pratû

Pratû, Patû ?

Window

หน้าต่าง

Trân

Pong yem

Boof

หลังคา

Krung dung

Padoll

Lang hu'an

Timber

ไม้กะดาน

Paen

Paen

Bamboo

ไม้ไผ่

Siro'ng

Chirong

Mai phai

Eattan

หวาย

Chirai

 

Wâi

Brick

อิล

Din chi

Dinchi

Bed

เตียง

Taliang

Teng

Table

โต๊ะ

Tangi

To

Mat

เสื่อ

Chipok

Chimpok

So'

Lamp

ตะเกียง

Takiang

Takiang

Torch

ชุด คบ

Khub

Kabong

Khub

Hearth

เตาไฟ

Tâ pâe

Tao fai

Fuel

ฟืน

Ui luk

Along h'ui

Fu'n

Broom

ไม้กวาด

Lui ampui

Mai bat


 


 

 

 

 

PT.2]                                         THE SO AND PHUTAI                                                  175

 

VOCABULARIES.

English

Thai

so

So (Cuaz)

Phuthai

Paper

กะดาด

Chia

Chë

Ink

น้ำหมึก

Nam mu'k

Nam mu'k

To write

เขียน

Kien

Ke"n

To read

อ่าน

An

An

Book

หนังสือ

Nangsu'

Nangsu'

Cart

เกวียน เกวียนกะแทะ

Kwian ratae

Kwian

To drive

นำพา ขับรถ

Bo' chi

Nam phâ, Kab rot?

Boat

เรือ

Tuak

Ho'

Oar

พาย แจว

Phâi, Chaeo

Phâi, Chaeo

Paddle

พาย

Phâi

Phâi

To paddle

พายเรือ

Phâi tuak

Phai ho'

Bow

ธนู

Po't po'ng

Katun

Arrow

ลูกสร

Kaem

Luk sorn

Blow pipe

ไม้ซาง

Along

Mai sang

Shield

โล่

Kûdo

Lo

Knife

มีด

At

A chu

Mit

Saw

เลื่อย

Lek lu'a

Lo'

Axe

ขวาน

Achaek

Achiet

Huan

Hammer

ค้อน

Tànû

Khon

Spade

เสียม

?

?

Plough

ไถ

Thai

Day

วัน

Sing ngai

Xangai

Wan

Night

คืน

Sidao

Xidao

Khu'n

Dawn

เวลาไกล้รุ่ง

Chi hrang

Sajieng

Wêla do' hung

Morning

เช้า

Taro'b

Chimo'k

Mu' sao

Noon

เที่ยง

To'ng

Phën

Thiang

Afternoon

บ่าย

Wi

Dai

Evening

ค่ำ

Tabô'

Tabû'

Kham

Week

อาทิจ

Muai sidao

Ta-ngen khoi

Month

เดือน

Mâchai

Mixai

Do'n

Year

ปี

Umô

Kumo

Pi

Last year

ปีกลาย

Umô hai

Kumo hai

Pi kâi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

176                                       MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                                  [VOL. XXIV]

 

VOCABULARIES.

English

Thai

so

So (Cuaz)

Phuthai

Next year

ปีหน้า

Umo mat

Pi ni

Yesterday

เมื่อวานนี้

Mi hai

Ta mahai

Mu' wânni

The day before

yesterday

เมื่อวานซืนนี้

Mâchai inthrà

Mu' su'n nan

To-day

วันนี้

Yang nai

Xangoi nai

Mu' ni

To-morrow

พรุ่งนี้

Mano'

Pano'

Mu' u'n

The day after

to-morrow

มะรืนนี้

Manopri

Po'ra

Mu' hu'

Season

รึดู

Radu

Yam

Cold season

รึดูหนาว

Radû aing nek

Yâm nao

Dry season

รึดูแล้ง

Radu o'k

Parang

Yâm laeng

Rainy season

รึดูฝน

Radu mi

Mt'u, dma

Yam fon

To go

ไป

Bo'

Po'

Bai

To come

มา

Chu

Tsu, Chu

Mi

To ride

ขี่ม้า

Chi

Chi ashe

Khi mi

To walk

เดิน

Ta yà

Yang

To run

วิ่ง

Tàlû

Talah

Ten

To rise

ลุกขึ้น

Yaora

Yuerr

Yu'n khu'n

To stand

ยืน

Tayu'ng

Tayu'ng

Yu'n

To sit down

นั่ง

Tâkû

Taku

Nang

To lie down

นอน

Bit

Bich

Non

To sleep

นอนหลับ

Bangët

Langhêt

Non lab

To wake

ตื่น

Tamo'

Tamo'

Tu'n

To awaken

ปลุก

Amai

Puk

To see

เห็น หา

Hu'm cho

Hu'm

Hen

To hear

ได้ยิน

So'ng

Tamu'ng, Sjang

Daiyin

Noise

เสียงดัง

Anthring

Siang dang

To smell

ดม

Hûn

Dum

Good smell

กลิ่นหอม

Cha phuam

Phaom

Kin hom

Bad smell

กลิ่นเหม็น

Cha anso

Ntso

Kin men

To speak

พูด

Kubo'n

Ravao, Vo'ng

Wau

To sing

ร้องเพลง

Khab

Tham phleng

 

 

 

 

 

 


PT.2]                                         THE SO AND PHUTAI                                                  177

 

VOCABULARIES.

English

Thai

so

So (Cuaz)

Phuthai

Language

พาสา

?

Phanu'rr

?

To laugh

หัวเราะ

Kuchang

Kuchang

Hôrô

To weep

ร้องไห้

Yâm

Yam

Hong hai

To cry

ร้องตะโกน

Arôn thàng

Arô

Hong dang

To cough

ไอ

Ang khôk

Ai

To spit

ถ่มน้ำลาย

Kuchô

Thum nâm lai

To yawn

หาว

Siàb

Ngao

To be hungry

หิว

Mâhnâg

Khlak avuah,

Yo'

To be thirsty

หิวน้ำ หยากน้ำ

Ma yak do',

Ing oi do'

Bia do'

Yo' nam

To suck

ตูด

Yuk

Dut

To bathe

อาบน้ำ

Ambo'i do'

Mbo'i do'

Ab nàm

To wash

(face, hands)

ล้างหน้า ล้างมือ

Ku lia mang asoiati

Phuch phre

(to wash)

Soai nâ lang mu'

To comb

หวีผม

Sirâ sok

Wi phum

To shave

โกน

Kat sok

—.

Kon

To be in good

มีความสุขสบาย

Ro

Mpai ai, Banh

Dai khwâm sabai

To be ill

เจ็บป่วย

Tik

Tich

Cheb Buai

Fever

ไข้

Âi

Tich ai

Khai

Diarrhoea

ลงท้อง

Chat kera pung aro

Ndhree pung

Cheb thong khi

To stool

ไปถ่ายอุจาระ

Po chi kera

Bai ki

To urinate

ไปถ่ายปสาวะ

Po chi krom

Bai yio

Plague

กาลโรค

Ku chit raw ai

Phi ha

Cholera

โรคอหิวาต์

Kutâthru

Ok khi ok hâk

Small pox

ฝีดาส

Âro'

Mâk suk

Medicine man

หมอ

Remedy

ยา

Rahao

Rrao

Blind

ตาบอด

Mat sut

Mat xut

Tâ bot

Deaf

หูหนวก

Kû tut tung

Kuturr tung

Hu hona

Mute

ไบ้

Phi hâ

 

 

 

 

 

 

178                                      MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                                  [VOL. XXIV]

 

VOCABULARIES.

English

Thai

so

So (Cuaz)

Phuthai

Lame

ขาเสีย ขากะเผลก

Yot

Khâ pë

Hunchback

หลังโกง

Klung âkô

Lang hot

Leprona

ขี้เรื้อน

Bok

Ben khi thut

Khi hu'an

To be born

เกิด

Ko't

Ko't

To die

ตาย

Kuchit

Kuchit

Tai

To bury the

corpse

ฝังคนตาย

Tu'b

Fang khun tâi

To burn the

corpse

เผาคนตาย

Bo

Phau khun tài

To be afraid

กลัว

Atuang

Yân

To steal

ขะโมย ลัก

Chi nuan truat

Tuech

Chorn lak

To kill

ค่า

Achit

Achit

White

สีขาว

Klok

Blai

Hào

Black

สีดำ

Aeng

Eng

Dam

Yellow

สีเหลือง

Lu'ang

Chin drang

Lo'ng

Green

สีเขียวไบไม้

Chilung

Khiau, Chiu

Haeo bai mai

Red

สีแดง

Kusao

Kuxao, Mao

Daeng

Blue

สีฟ้า

Kanammâ

Si re

Haeo fâ

This

สิ่งนี้ นี้นี้

Kâ nai nai

Anai

Naeo ni, nini

That

สิ่งนั้น นั้นนั้น

Kâ ki ânai ânai

Aghi

Nae nan, nan nan

This man

คนนี้

Lakuai nai

Nonai

Phu ni

That woman

หยิงคนนั้น

Rapai ki

Adho, Tho

Ying phu nan

I, me

ฉัน แก่ฉัน

Ang go

Nngo, Paku

Kan lae kan

Thou, thee

เอง แก่เอง

Keang go

M but, May, Ke

To kae to

He, him

เขาชาย แก่เขาชาย

Rakuai rang gong

Naoki, an

Khao phu chai, Kae
khao phu chai

We, us

เรา แก่เรา

Anggo kae anggo

Ngo

Kan kae kan

You

ท่าน แก่ท่าน

Mai kae mai

Muet apai

Than kae than

They, them

เขาทั้งหลาย แก่เขาทั้งหลาย

Ngan kanâ

Alai

Khao thang lai,Kae
khao thang lai

My father

บิดาของฉัน

Ampa

Pho kong ku

Our child

ลูกของเรา

Kon ang go

Lu kong gan

 

 

 

 

 

PT.2]                                         THE SO AND PHUTAI                                                  179

 

VOCABULARIES.

English

Thai

so

So (Cuaz)

Phuthai

A high tree

ต้นไม้สูง

Along kuti

Kuk mai sûng

This tree is higher

than that tree

ต้นไม้ต้นนี้สูงกว่าต้นนั้น

Along ka nai

kuti kua

Kuk mai kuk ni sung gua kuk nan

This mango tree is the highest in the garden

ต้นมะม่วงต้นนี้เปนต้นที่สูงกว่าหมดในสวนนี้

Tano'm amuang ka nai kuti kua ngae

Kuk mamong kuk ni ben kuk sùngkwa mut nai su an ni

I am going to

the market

ฉันไปตลาด

Anggo bo' talat

Kan bai talat

When are you

going

ท่านจะไปเมื่อไหร่

?

?

I am coming from the market

ฉันมาจากตลาด

Anggo chu tai talat

Kan ma chak talat

To-morrow I

shall go into

the forest

พรุ่งนี้ฉันจะไปไนป่า

Mano' anggo bo'

so'k

Mu' u'n kan

cha bai pa

Yesterday I was

in the forest

วานนี้ฉันไปไนป่า

Mahai anggo bo'

so'k

Wânni kan dai

bai pa

In front of the

house

หน้าบ้าน

Kaem dung

Do'n ban

Behind the house

หลังบ้าน

Po'ng' plo'

Thang ho hu'an

On the table

บนโต๊ะ

Po'ng to

Tho'ng to

Under the table

ไต้โต๊ะ

Pu'u to

Do' to

Who comes ?

ไครมา

Nao do'

Pho' ma

What do you say?

ท่านว่าอะไร

Nao waeow an dao'

To waow phlo'

How many child-

ren have you ?

ท่านมีลูกกี่คน

Wo'n kon sina

To dai lu sak kun

Why are you

coming here?

ท่านมาที่นี้ทำไม

Mai dro' hâ nai

ta-an to ro

To ma et phlo'

Because I am ill

เพราะฉันป่วย

Ko chi pam

Pro kan buai

If I recover

ถ้าฉันหาย

Ko ban

?

When I recover

เมื่อฉันจะหาย

Si-ngai anggo iban

Mo' kan cha di

 

 

 

 

 

 

180                                      MAJOR E. SEIDENFADEN                                  [VOL. XXIV]

 

VOCABULARIES.

English

Thai

so

So (Cuaz)

Phuthai

Yes

จ๊ะ

Ho'

Chia chu'a

Cha

No

เปล่า

O't mât

Mbai

Mi dai

Together

ด้วยกัน

Prom

Promkan

One

หนึ่ง

Muai

Muei

Nu'ng

Two

สอง

BS

Bair

Song

Three

สาม

Bai

Pai

Sam

Four

สี่

Pôn

Pon

Si

Five

ห้า

So'ng

So'ng

Ha

Six

หก

Tapet

Tapet

Hok

Seven

เจ็ด

Tapûn

Ta pull

Chet

Eight

แปด

Takôn

Takorr

Paet

Nine

เก้า

Take

Takeh

Kao

Ten

สิบ

Machit

Chit

Sib

Eleven

สิบเอ็ด

Chit la muai

Chit la muei

Sib et

Twelve

สิบสอง

,, la ba

,, la barr

Sib song

Thirteen

สิบสาม

,, la bai

,, la bai

Sib sam

Fourteen

สิบสี่

,, la pôn

,, la pon

Sib si

Fifteen

สิบห้า

,, la so'ng

,, la so'ng

Sib bâ

Sixteen

สิบหก

,, la tapet

,, la tapet

Sib hok

Seventeen

สิบเจ็ด

„ la tapun

„ la tapull

Sib Chet

Eighteen

สิบแปด

„ la takon

,, la takorr

Sib paet

Niueteen

สิบเก้า

,, la take

,, la takeh

Sib kao

Twenty

ยี่สิบ

Ba chit

Barr chit

Sao

Twenty one

ยี่สิบเอ็ด

Ba ,, la muai

Barr „ la muai

Sao et

Thirty

สามสิบ

Bai „

Bai chit

Sam sib

Forty

สี่สิบ

Pon „

Pon „

Si sib

Fifty

ห้าสิบ

So'ng ,,

So'ng „

Hâ sib

Sixty

หกสิบ

Tapet ,,

Tapet ,,

Hok sib

Seventy

เจ็ดสิบ

Tapûn „

Tapull ,,

Chet sib

Eighty

แปดสิบ

Takôn ,,

Takorr „

Paet sib

Ninety

เก้าสิบ

Take „

Takeh „

Kao sib

 

 

 


 

 

 

PT.2]                                         THE SO AND PHUTAI                                                  181

 

VOCABULARIES.

English

Thai

so

So (Cuaz)

Phuthai

One hundred

ร้อยหนึ่ง

Muai kalap

Kulam muai

goulam

Hoi thon

One hundred

and one

ร้อยกับหนึ่ง

Muai kalap muai

Hoi pai nu'ng

Two hundred

สองร้อย

Bâ kalap

Song hoi

Three hundred

สามร้อย

Bai kalap

Sam hoi

Four hundred

สี่ร้อย

Pôn kalap

Si hoi

Five hundred

ห้าร้อย

So'ng kalab

Hâ hoi

Six hundred

หกร้อย

Tapet kalap

Hok hoi

Seven hundred

เจ็ดร้อย

Tapûn kalap

Chet hoi

Bight hundred

แปดร้อย

Takôn kalap

Paet hoi

Nine hundred

เก้าร้อย

Take kalap

-

Kao hoi

One thousand

พันหนึ่ง

Muai pan

Phan nu'ng

Ten thousand

หมื่นหนึ่ง

Muai mu'n

Mu'n nu'ng

One hundred

thousand

แสนหนึ่ง

Muai saen

Saen nu'ng

One million

ล้านหนึ่ง

Muai lan

Lan nu'ng

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                      ERIK SEIDENFADEN

 

Bangkok, 1st August 1942

 


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