The Koh Lak Tradition. พิมพ์ อีเมล
เขียนโดย Francis H. Giles.   






                                    THE KOH LAK TRADITION


                                              Francis H. Giles.
                                                    Part One.

                   The Tradition and a Few Introductory Remarks.

Before recording the Koh Lak Tradition it may be helpful to the
reader to know the geographical position of Koh Lak. Koh Lak is
officially known as Prachuab Kirikanta (ประจวบคีรีขันธ์). This place,
the centre of this tradition, is situated on the Southern Railway,
318 kilometres from Bangkok, and is on the western side of a
beautiful bay which is practically land-locked. The entrance to
this bay from the Gulf of Siam is through a narrow passage, near
which stands Koh Lak, the pillar island, and Koh Hai Lam, the
Hai-lam' island. These islands are in reality rocks projecting
from the bed of the sea, and are of considerable altitude. They
are the homes of the serau or wild goat. Lying to the north,
two or three miles distant, is Kao Mawng Lai (เขาม่องล่าย). It was
on this prominence that Prince Mawng Lai lived. In ancient days
this territory was divided for administrative purposes into a number
of small governorships. Koh Lak is a strategic position of some
importance. Firstly the little harbour is protected from the
fury of the north-east monsoon. The water is shallow, but
this could be rectified by dredging. A few miles north of Koh
Lak is a low pass through the hills which leads to Mergui and
Tanao Sri in Burma. South of Koh Lak is Ban Krut (บ้านครุธ), from
which place also one can move into Burma, for there is an-
other low pass lying a few miles to the west of this place.





2                                  FRANCIS H. GILES                              [VOL. XXX


A short distance south of Krut (ครุธ) is Bang Ta-phan (บางตะพาน),
lying a mile or so inland from the sea on a river of that
name. About twelve miles west of Bang Ta-phan (บางตะพาน) are the
gold mines of Paron (ป่าร่อน). These mines have been worked from
time immemorial. The gold is very pure, but is found only in small
quantities. Many years ago a European Company tried to work
these mines on a commercial scale, but failed, losing a great sum of
money. The people still wash a little gold every year. South of
Bang Ta-phan (บางตะพาน) we come to Chumphorn (ชุมพร). lying on the
eastern side of the Isthmus of Kra (คอคอดกระ). This Isthmus has
been used as a trade route for several thousand years. It is pro-
bable that the trade between India and the ancient Kingdoms of
Punam (พูนัม). Cham (ขม), Cambodia (แคมโบเดีย), and China passed
over this road. To the south of this there is another route, starting
from Takuapa (ตะกั่วป่า), known to the ancients as Takola (ตาโกลา),
lying on the west coast of Siam. Passing over the watershed this
route abuts on the Gulf of Siam near Chaiya (ไชยา). South of
Chaiya (ไชยา) we come to Nakorn Sri Dhammaraj (นครศรีธรรมราช)
Both Chaiya and Nakorn Sri Dhammaraj have been the capitals
of ancient and powerful Kingdoms. These places were colonized
by Indians, the Cholas and Pandyas. Their princes were Indian.
The territory embraced within the boundaries of the Kingdom
of Nakorn Sri Dhammaraj was known as Tamra-ling-ka or
Tam-pra-ling-Ka. It is interesting to know that this word is
of Southern Indian origin. It means copper-colour marked, a
term the Pandyans used when describing territories occupied
by them. When these people conquered Ceylon they gave it the
name of Tamra-parni, because they had to cross a river whose
waters were copper-coloured. Having described the territories
lying to the south of Koh Lak and those to the west, it may be as
well to say what lies to the north. To the north are the old towns
of Kwi (กุย) and Pran (ปราน), which have some historical importance,
and farther to the north again we come to Bejraburi (เพ็ชย์บุรี),which
was known in olden times as Padja (พัดชา). This place, Padja (พัดชา),
as well as the region lying to the north along the valley of the Me-
klong river, notably the town of Rajaburi (ราชบุรี), had also been In-







PT. 1]                             THE KOH LAK TRADITION                                3


It will be seen from what I have said that Koh Lak stands on
historic ground ; the southern marches of the Thai people passed over
this territory. Many battles must have been fought here, and the
battle mentioned in the Koh Lak Tradition was one of those which
took place during the southern expansion of Thai power. Since
those days the Thai have fought the Mon (มอญ), the Burman (พมา)
and the Cambodian on this ground.

Although we do not know who Prince Mawng Lai (ม่องล่าย) was, or
the exact period during which he flourished, an attempt will be made
in Part III to clarify this obscurity. Perhaps the name of Mawng
Lai's daughter, Yom Doey, may give us a clue as to who her father
was. Yom Doey is without doubt not a Thai name. It is said to be
the name of a flowering tree or plant, but I have been unable to
verify this after consulting with botanists and those versed in for-
estry. The word is used to represent a flower in the Vessandara
Jataka or " Birth Story." The reference will be found in that por-
tion of the story which recounts that Mathri, when in search of forest
fruits, pointing said : " There is the Saiyud (สายหยุด), and over there
is the Bud Prayong (พุดประยงค์), and yonder is the Yom Doey (ยม
โดย)." My suggestion is that the word Yom Doey is of Indian
origin, either Cholian or Pandyan. However this is a matter for philo-
logists to decide.

The reader of the Tradition will notice that a fortune-teller or
astrologer, named Bejr, and his wife Nang Ai, were living in Mawng
Lai's territory. These people were Thai ; the name of the man and
his wife are somewhat significant ; the man, being called Bejr, pro-
bably came from the then Thai city of Padja (Bejraburi), and his wife
was called Ai, which has the meaning of "first", the first Thai
woman to settle in this region. It is well known that no man is a
prophet in his own country, and all prophets and most fortune-tellers
and astrologers are strangers in the land. These two people were
such strangers. On the death of Mawng Lai, being overcome
by fear they fled in a northerly direction to the Cock-fighting
Hill in the Province of Kanchanaburi. It is noteworthy that the
Cock-fighting Hill is mentioned in the Koh Lak Tradition. This
place must have been of some historical importance in connection

                              with some event. In the story Khun Chang Khun Phan







4                                       FRANCIS H. GILES                              [VOL. XXX


(ขุนช้างขุนแผน) the hill is mentioned in one passage, which says :
"Phra Phan Sa Narakorn" (พระพรรษาณรากร) in his anger commanded
the putting to death of Khun Krai (ขุนไกร). His wife, named Thong
Prasri (ทองประศรี), being afraid that she would become a royal slave
or widow (such a status being intolerable to a free woman), fled from
Ayodhaya and went to hide in the village of the Cock-fighting Hill.
It is probable that a battle was fought near this place between the
Thai and an opposing force.

The following is the Tradition rendered into English:—

It is related by the people living in the vicinity of Koh Lak
(the Pillar island) that in ancient days there lived here a prince
named Mawng Lai (ม่องลาย), which means the "look out place".
He had a wife, Rampung (รำพึง) meaning "remembrance", and a
daughter called Yom Doey (ยมโดย), the name of a flowering shrub.
Their house was built on the shore of a small bay (อ่าวน้อย),
a continuation of the Mawng Lai Hill. Mawng Lai was a man of
great stature and strength. His weapon was a club, having a
circumference of 15 hand-breadths (about 1.6 metres) and a length
of 16 metres. One day Mawng Lai dreamt that he was struck by
lightning. He told the story of his dream to a friend called Bejr
(เพ็ชร์ ), whose wife was named Ai (อ้าย). This man was an astrologer,
a fortune-teller, and he interpreted the dream to mean Mawng Lai
would be fortunate and obtain wealth. Mawng Lai decided to set forth
in search of wealth, and bidding farewell to his wife and daughter,
picked up his club, put a bag (ย่ามละว้า) containing what he required
for the journey on his shoulder, and went down from the house.

The story now relates the entry of a Chinese prince named
Muak (หมวก) on the scene. This prince had heard of the extra-
ordinary beauty of Yom Doey, the reputation of which was sufficient
to cause him to become so enamoured of her, that he determined to
request her hand in marriage. The prince, having bade farewell to
his father, the Emperor of China, went with a fleet of a hundred
sailing vessels to Koh Lak to ask for Yom Doey. On his arrival at
Koh Lak he approached Yom Doey herself, but she refused to accept

his advances. The prince was so grieved at this refusal that he

decided to call on the spirit of his grandfather to help him. [ The






PT. 1]                             THE KOH LAK TRADITION                                5


word used here is Devapu (เทวปู่) ; the young man being a prince,
his grandfather would naturally be a god and reside in the realm of
the gods.] The prince placed himself in a state of mental poise,
approximating to a trance. The spirit of his ancestor entered into
him. The spirit gave him a charm or love philtre composed of wax,
powder and sandal wood oil, having the property of making any one
touched therewith fall in love. The prince prepared gifts for Ram
Phung which bad been sprinkled with this love philtre. Such feel-
ings of pity and commiseration were aroused in the heart of Ram
Phung that she gave the prince opportunities of meeting her daughter
alone. Yom Doey became enamoured of the prince, which resulted
in a clandestine love intrigue. The young prince having gained the
love of the girl, formally asked for her in marriage from her mother.
A date, namely, Tuesday the 9th day of the waxing of the 12th
month, was fixed for the wedding. Tuesday is held to be a good day,
but in that year it so fell out that it was an evil day, and any one
doing anything on Tuesday in that year was bound to meet with
misfortune. Prince Muak sent a letter conveying the joyful tidings
of his approaching marriage to his father, the Emperor, who imme-
diately set out with a fleet of five hundred vessels for Koh Lak to
conduct the marriage ceremony.

Mawng Lai, travelling in a north-westerly direction came to the
city of Padja (พัดชา), where reigned a Prince Ubalabong (อุบลบอง)
This prince had a son called Laya (ลาย) The young prince having
heard of the beauty of Yom Doey, begged his father to ask for her
in marriage from Mawng Lai. Mawng Lai consented to give his
daughter to Laya, and Tuesday the 9th of the waxing of the 12th
month was fixed for the wedding. Prince Laya, accompanied by
Mawng Lai, and escorted by an army, set out for Koh Lak. The
road was barred by an army of Yaksas (ยักษ์). A battle was fought,
and the Yaksas were defeated. The young prince continued his journey,
and came to a great swamp. Mawng Lai commanded the Yaksas
to bring gold and make a bridge over the swamp. The party skirted
the frontiers of Padja and camped at the Red Hill (เขาแดง). At this
place the bowl containing betel nuts and leaves, a symbol of bet-

rothal, was prepared for presentation to the parents of the girl.
A number of hares were kept in an enclosure on a hill near by. When
Mawng Lai arrived at his home, he learnt that his daughter had a






6                                  FRANCIS H. GILES                                 [VOL. XXX


lover and that his wife had agreed to marry the girl to her lover, a
prince from China. This news caused Mawng Lai to become enraged.
When Prince Laya was told of the approaching marriage of Yom
Doey to Prince Muak, he thought of attacking Prince Muak and
seizing the person of Yom Doey. Mawng Lai thought of a plan to
prevent fighting between the two princes. He was so enraged at
what had taken place without his consent that he killed his daughter
Yom Doey, and her maid Song (สง). He cut off their breasts
throwing them in different directions. One fell in the country of
Outer Annam (ญวนนอก), one at Chantaburi (Inner Annam) (ญวนใน),
one at Songkla (สงขลา), and one in the island of Hainan (or Hailam).
The body of Yom Doey fell in the Bay of Pak Panang (ปากพนัง),
and the body of Song fell on the face of a hill in the island of
Langka (Ceylon). He kicked his wife Ram Phung, breaking her ribs.
She, with her eyes starting out of her head, fled in terror to the Bay
of Manao (มะนาว), and died at Bang Ta-phan (บางตะพาน). The Yaksas
became so frightened that they fled, taking their gold with them.
Mawng Lai lost his senses, and in a fit of madness threw the gold
which formed the betrothal gift, to Pa Ron (ป่าร่อน), which is near
Bang Ta-phan and famous for the purity of its gold. He threw the
staircase of his house away, and it became the present Kao Kan
Bandai (เขาคั่นบันได), north of Kao Mawng Lai. He throw away
the mirror, which became the present day Kao Chong Krachok
(เขาช่องกระจก), west of Kao Mawng Lai. He threw away his um-
brella, which became the present Koh Rom (เกาะร่ม). He cast the
betel nuts and leaves, Chinese cakes, little pots holding wax, tobacco,
chunam used with betel nuts, and many other things, into the sea,
where they became sea-weed, shells, pebbles and so forth. Bejr
attempted to calm Mawng Lai, who, becoming increasingly mad,
threw the pestle away, which pierced the rock now known as Koh
Talu (เกาะทะลุ). Mawng Lai, having set fire to his house, made up,
his mind to die, and death came to him on the top of Kao Mawng Lai
lying to the north-east of the Bay of Koh Lak. His pertrified body

may be seen there to this day, lying face downwards looking out
to sea.

Bejr fled, taking his family with him. He desired to go
towards the East, but the sea barred his way and he fled towards the






PT. 1]                             THE KOH LAK TRADITION                                7


north. His dogs, not understanding the change in the plan, lost
their way, went towards the south and slept at Pratiu (ประทิว). Some
people say the place was Sunak Hon (สุนัขหอน). Bejr went to a hill
known as the Cock-fighting Hill (เขาชนไก่), in the Province of Kan-
chanaburi (กาญจนบุรี), where he trapped wild fowl. He lived on the
islands called Pig and Tiger Islands, breeding pigs and catching
tigers. His wife, Dame Ai, went to a place to make Kapi (กะบี่), and
the place is now known as Kapi Island. Bejr then engaged in
catching elephants at a place which is now known as Koh Chang
(เกาะช้าง), the Elephant Island, situated on the eastern side of the
Gulf of Siam, off the coast of Krat. Bejr related to two men the
terrible happenings at Koh Lak, and his own adventures. This story
so impressed them with the impermanence of worldly things that
they decided to give up all worldly pleasures and pursuits and be-
come hermits. They fixed their hermitage on an island now known
a Si Chang (ษีชัง), the World-hating Hermit Island, situated west of
Siracha. The tradition now brings us back to the two princes, Muak
and Laya. The Prince Laya experienced such grief and sorrow on
hearing of the death of Yom Doey that his spirit left him, and he
died at a place known as Prince Laya Hill (เขาเจ้าลาย). The bowl
containing the betel nuts and leaves, the symbols of betrothal, be-
came transformed into the rocks of the Three-hundred Peak Hills
(เขาสามร้อยยอด). The hares' pen was transformed into the Harepen
Hill (เขากระต่ายขัง). The hares escaped from their pen, running away
in all directions, and since that time, hares have been numerous in
the district of Koh Lak. The turtles which were kept for preparing
the dishes for the marriage feast, were transformed into the Turtle
Hill (เขาเต่า), near Hua Hin. Prince Muak, who was enjoying
some boiled rice, eating the same with chopsticks from an earthen-
ware dish, was so upset on hearing from a servant of the death of
Yom Doey that the chopsticks and dish dropped from his hands,
and became the Chopsticks Hill (เขาตะกียบ), near Hua Hin, and the

Dish Island (เกาะจาน), which lies East of Koh Lak. The whale,
which was to be cooked in the Chinese fashion as Pe Sa (แป๊ะซะ), be-
came transformed into the Whale Creek Hill (เขาคลองวาฬ), adjacent
to Koh Lak. The swifts which were to be roasted for the feast,








8                                      FRANCIS H. GILES                                [VOL. XXX


became the Swift Island (เกาะอีแอ่น). The rhinoceros which was to be
made into curry, both spiced and unspiced, became the Rhinoceros
Island (เกาะแรด). Prince Muak, purifying his mind, gave up all world-
ly infatuations and attachments, decided to return to the heaven of
his ancestors, and died at a spot now known as Muak-enclosing Hill
(เขาล้อมหมวก). The Emperor of China gave orders for his fleet to
leave the harbour, but his men forgot to pull up one of the mooring
posts and this now remains as Pillar Island—Koh Lak (เกาะหลัก),
One of the crew, who jumped overboard to recover the mooring post.
was drowned, and at this spot now stands Hailam Island (เกาะใหหลำ).
The Emperor with his retinue and fleet returned to China.

  Mawng Lai has become deified, and is now a great Spirit
(เจ้าพ่อม่องล่าย), in the realm of the gods. Sailors in danger from
storms, and those striken with disease make offerings composed of
boiled glutinous rice and sugar to him, in the firm conviction that he
will help them in their troubles, and that they will come safely to
shore and recover from their sickness.

  The following is the tradition in Siamese language, which
I have recorded in the language of the people who gave it to me.
This language may not be cultured Siamese, but it is written down
in the actual words.



        ตาม่องล่าย ภริยาชื่อรำพึง มีบุตรชื่อนางยมโดย รูปร่างงดงาม
เป็นที่ต้องตาใครเห็นเป็นหลงรัก ตั้งเคหะสถานอยู่ที่อ่าวน้อย จังหวัด
ประจวบคิรีขันธ์ ตาม่องล่ายร่างกายกำยำล่ำสันใหญ่โต มีกระบองเป็น
อาวุธ โต ๑๕ กำ ยาว ๘ วา คืนวันหนึ่งตาม่องล่ายฝันว่าฟ้าผ่า เล่า
ให้ตาเพ็ชร์ สามีนางไอ้ผู้เป็นเพื่อนฟัง ตาเพ็ชร์ทำนายว่า จะมีลาภ ตา
ม่องล่ายคิดจะไปหาเพ็ชร์นิลจินดา สั่งภริยาและบุตรีแล้ว คว้าได้ไม้
กระบองคู่มือพร้อมด้วยย่ามละว้าบรรจุอาหาร ลงเรือนไป.

       บัดนี้จะกล่าวถึงเจ้าหมวก บุตร์เจ้าเมืองจีน ได้ทราบข่าวเล่าลือ

ถึงรูปโฉมโนมพรรณนางสาวยมโดย ให้มีจิตต์กำหนัดรักใคร่อยากได้






PT. 1]                             THE KOH LAK TRADITION                                9


ไว้เป็นภริยา จึงลาบิดายกสำเภามา ๑๐๐ ลำ เพื่อจะพูดจาทาบทามสู่ขอ
นางยมโดย ๆ ไม่รับรัก เจ้าหมวกเข้าทรงเทวปู่ ๆ เสกสีผึ้ง, แป้ง, น้ำ

มันให้ เจ้าหมวกพยามยามส่งของให้แม่รำพึงใช้สีผึ้ง, แป้ง, น้ำมันประ

พรมสิ่งของนั้นๆ แม่รำพึงมีความสงสารให้โอกาศพบกับนางยมโดยๆ เกิด

ความรักใคร่ได้เสียกันทางลับ จึงพูดจาสู่ขอตกลงนัดแต่งงานกันในวัน

อังคารเดือน๑๒ ขึ้น๙ ค่ำ อันเป็นวันอำมฤคโชค(แต่ปีนั้นวันอังคารเป็นวัน

อุบาทว์ หมอดูตรวจไม่ทั่วถึง) เจ้าหมวกมีหนังสือบอกบิดา ๆ ก็ยก

สำเภามาอีก ๕๐๐ ลำ เพื่อจะทำการวิวาห์

      ฝ่ายตาม่องล่าย ไปทางทิศตะวันตกเฉียงเหนือถึงเมืองพระเจ้าอุบล

ละบอง เมืองพัดชาๆ มีบุตร์ชื่อเจ้าลาย ๆ ทราบข่าวความสวยงามนางยม

โดย มีความอยากได้เป็นภริยาให้บิดาพูดจาสู่ขอต่อตาม่องล่าย ๆ ตกลง

ยกให้ นัดแต่งงานกันในวันอังคารเดือน๑๒ ขึ้น๙ ค่ำ พ้องกันกับวันที่นาง

รำพึงนัดไว้กับเจ้าหมวก เจ้าลายยกพลมาพร้อมกับตาม่องล่าย มากลาง

ทางพบยักษ์ เกิดรบกัน ยักษ์แพ้ยอมเป็นข้า แล้วเดินมาพบบึง

ใหญ่ ตาม่องล่ายเกณฑ์ยักษ์ ให้ขนทองคำมาทำสะพานแล้วเดินเลียบเข้า

เขตต์แดน ไปพักพลอยู่ที่บ้านเขาแดง จัดขันหมากที่นั่นและขังกระต่ายไว้


       ฝ่ายตาม่องล่ายเมื่อมาถึงบ้าน ทราบว่าบุตรีมีคู่รัก และภริยาตกลง

นัดแต่งงานก็โกรธมาก เจ้าลายกับเจ้าหมวกทราบเรื่องคิดจะทำสงคราม

ชิงนาง ตาม่องล่ายคิดตัดศึก ทั้งมีความโกรธอยู่แล้ว จึงฆ่านางยมโดย

และนางสงคนใช้ ขว้างนมข้างหนึ่งย่านญวนนอก อีกนมหนึ่งขว้างไป

จันทบุรี (ญวนใน) อีกนมหนึ่งขว้างไปส อีกนมหนึ่งตกเกาะใหหลำ

ส่วนตัวนางยมโดยขว้างไปตกอ่าวปากพนัง จังหวัดนครศรีธรรมราช ส่วน

ตัวนางสงขว้างไปตกเกาะลังกาน่าผาสิงหฬ เตะแม่รำพึงโครงหักวิ่งหนีไป





10                             FRANCIS H. GILES                             [VOL. XXX


ถึงอ่าวมะนาวตาเหลือก ไปนอนตายบางสะพาน ฝ่ายพวกยักษ์พากันหนี

ขนทองกลับไปด้วย ตาม่องล่ายเสียใจและคลั่งมากขว้างทองหมั่นไป

ป่าร่อน ขว้างบันไดไปเป็นเขาคั่นบันได ขว้างกระจกไปติดช่องเขากระจก

ขว้างร่มไปเป็นเกาะร่ม หมากพลูขนมจีนและตลับกับของต่าง ๆ ขว้างลง

ทะเลกลายเป็นสาหร่าย, หอยและก้อนกรวดและอื่น ๆ .

ตาเพ็ชร์มาห้ามเลยเกิดวิวาทกัน ตาม่องล่ายเอาสากขว้างไปถูกเขา

ทะลุ ตาเพ็ชร์พาครอบครัวหนีตาม่องล่ายเอาเพลิงเผาบ้านแล้วกลั้นใจ

ตายอยู่ที่เขาเรียกว่า เขาม่องล่าย.


ไปทิศเหนือ แต่สุนัขตาเพ็ชร์หลงทางไปทิศใต้ ไปนอนอยู่ที่หหน้าอำเภอ
ประทิว ตาเพ็ชร์ไปแวะต่อไก่ที่เรียกว่าเขาชนไก่ จังหวัดกาญจนบุรี
และได้ไปพักเลี้ยงสุกรแล้วไปจับเสือได้ที่เรียกว่าเกาะหมูเกาะเสือ และยาย
ไอ้ไปพักทำกะปิในที่ ๆ เรียกว่าเกาะกะปิ แล้วตาเพ็ชร์ไปจับช้างฝูงได้ที่

เรียกว่าเกาะช้าง แล้วมีชายสองคนได้ฟังเรื่องจากตาเพ็ชร์รู้สึกโลกอนิจจัง
ให้มีความเกลียดชังทางฆราวาศ จึงชวนกันบวชฤาษี ไปจำศีลภาวนา

        คราวนี้จะกล่าวถึงเจ้าหมวกและเจ้าลาย เจ้าลายเมื่อทราบข่าวว่า
นางยมโดยตายก็เสียใจ ขาดใจตายเป็นเจ้าลาย ขันหมากก็กลายเป็น
ศิลา ๓๐๐ ยอด ที่ขังกระต่ายก็เลยเป็นเขากระต่ายขัง กระต่ายก็ออก
จากที่ขัง เพ่นพ่านไป จึงมีกระต่ายชุมมากในเขตต์ประจวบคิรีขันธ์


พอมีข่าวมาบอกว่านางยมโดยตายเจ้าหมวกร้องอ๊ายย่า จานกระเด็นไปตั้ง

เป็นเกาะจาน ตะเกียบกระเด็นไปตั้งเป็นเขาตะเกียบ ส่วนปลาวาฬที่จะ





PT. 1]                           THE KOH LAK TRADITION                           11


แป๊ะซะเลี้ยงกันก็กลายเป็นคลองวาฬ นกอีแอ่นที่เตรียมไว้จะทอดก็กลาย
เป็นเกาะอีแอ่น และแรตที่จะแกงเผ็ดแลบะช่อก็กลายเป็นเกาะแรต เจ้า
หมวกกลั้นใจตายเป็นเขาล้อมหมาก ฝ่ายเจ้าเมืองจีนสั่งให้ออกเรือ
สำเภา ครั้นออกเรือลืมหลัก เลยกลายเป็นเกาะหลัก จีนใหหลำโดดน้ำ
จะไปเอาหลัก เลยจมน้ำตาย เรียกว่าเกาะใหหลำ บิดาเจ้าหมวกและ
บ่าวไพร่พร้อมด้วยสำเภา ๖๐๐ ลำก็กลับไปเมืองจีน.

            ตาม่องล่ายนั้นบางคนเรียกว่า เจ้าพ่อม่องล่าย เมื่อถูกลมพายุใน
ทะเลหรือมีการเจ็บไข้ก็บลเข้าเหนียวเปียกน้ำตาลทรายแดง กล่าวกันว่า




12                            FRANCIS H. GILES                               [VOL. XXX


                                              Part Two.

           The Dramatised Version of the Koh, Lak tradition of
                                  H. M. King Rama VI.

His Majesty King Rama VI. dramatised the tradition. The
royal playwright, however, changed the story to meet the require-
ments of his play. This dramatised version has been printed in a work
called "The Book of Rajburi" (สมุดราชบุรี), published in B. E. 2468,
A. D. 1925. This book was compiled in connection with the National
Exhibition which it was intended to hold in that year, in commemo-
ration of the fifteenth year of the reign of that king. As this story
has received official sanction by being published in the work referred
to, and as the play was actually staged and acted before the public
in Koh Lak, it is possible that this story may be accepted by the
people as the true one, and the real tradition gradually fade from
their memory. It is for this reason that I place the tradition on
record. The theme of the King's play is as follows : —

In ancient days there were three lords of the sea, each one
having his residence on a hill adjacent to the sea. These three
princes were, Chao Laya, whose hill was to the north, Thao Mawng
Lai in the centre, and Chao Krung Cheen to the south. Prince
Laya, having heard of the beauty of the daughter of Thao Mawng
Lai, disguised himself as a fisherman and came by boat to the landing
of the palace of Thao Mawng Lai at Koh Lak. The maids of the
princess were buying fish at the landing, and, seeing Chao Laya,
went home and told her that a handsome youth had brought fish to
the landing for sale. The young princess commanded that he should
bring his fish to the palace. The young man came into the presence
of the girl. When they saw each other their hearts were pierced by
the arrows of love, and from that day the young man found oppor-
tunities of coming to the palace frequently and one day their love
was consummated. This was known to the mother of the princess,
and a day was fixed for the marriage. The sea lord of China on the
Krung Cheen Hill also heard of the beauty of the young princess,
daughter of Thao Mawng Lai. He gathered together presents of
beautiful silks and other articles and, disguising himself as a trader,
came to the palace, where he was received by Thao Mawng Lai.
Thao Mawng Lai was delighted with the beautiful silks and sent for
his wife and daughter to come and look at them. The young Prince








PT. 1]                           THE KOH LAK TRADITION                           13


of China then asked Thao Mawng Lai for the hand of his daughter.
To this assent was given, and a date was fixed for the marriage. The
date so fixed by Mawng Lai was the same date as that already
arranged for the marriage of the princess to Chao Laya, the parents
having forgotten their promise to Chao Laya. On the appointed
day both Prince Laya and the Prince of China came in their ships,
with their betrothal gifts, to the royal landing. Thao Mawng Lai
realised that he was in a most embarrassing position, and, seeing that
a tight between the two princes was inevitable, requested them to
withdraw their ships from the landing to the open sea, in order that
he might prepare a grand fleet of ships to receive the gifts. The two
young men obeyed the request of the older prince, who immediately
collected a fleet of armed vessels which were moored round his
island city. Having gathered together his fleet under the pretext
that the ships were to form a procession to receive the betrothal
gifts, Thao Mawng Lai told the ambassadors of the two young
princes of the mistake he had made, and suggested that the difficulty
might be overcome by each of the princes taking half the girl. The
two young princes objected, and sent their ambassadors back to tell
Thao Mawng Lai that there was no justice in his solution of the
difficulty. Prince Laya withdrew his fleet with the betrothal gifts
to a harbour where the gifts were landed, and from this place set
out with his fleet to attack Thao Mawng Lai. The young Prince of
China, being overcome with rage, acted with greater decision and
rapidity. He brought his fleet to the place where Mawng Lai's
ships were lying. A battle ensued in which the Prince of China was
defeated and his fleet dispersed. The slaughter was great, many
prisoners were taken, and the prince is supposed to have fallen into
the sea, for he was heard of no more. The betrothal gifts of the
Prince of China were transformed into shells, fishes, etc. The
princess, the cause of all this trouble, fearing that the young Prince of
China might overcome her father, and she be taken by the victor, decid-
ed to flee by boat at night from the royal palace, for she loved Prince
Laya. She carried her determination into effect and, while search-
ing for her lover, a storm arose. Her boat was sunk, but she saved
her life by swimming to land near a hill, which has since been known
as the Maiden's Breast Hill (เขานมสาว). Prince- Laya, on arrival at the
city of Mawng Lai, not finding ''the fleet of this prince or his men

there, ransacked the palace in search of the young princess, but did








14                                 FRANCIS H. GILES                             [VOL. XXX


not find her. The girl's mother told Laya that the princess had fled
by boat and gone in search of him, With these happy tidings in his
heart he set forth with his fleet in search of the maiden. He found
her near the Maiden's Breast Hill and took her away with him. Thao
Mawng Lai, collecting the remants of the Chinese fleet and gathering
together much booty and many prisoners, returned to his city to find
that his daughter was not there. Thao Mawng Lai questioned his
wife and was told that their daughter had fled before the arrival of
Prince Laya with his fleet. Mawng Lai became so enraged that he
picked his wife up and threw her into the sea. She swam and
landed at a place known today as Ramphung Hill. Thao Mawng
Lai, with all his fleet, set forth in search of his daughter. He came
up with the fleet of Prince Laya and the latter seeing that the forces
of Mawng Lai were numerous, effected a landing of his men and
entrenched himself on the top of a hill. Mawng Lai surrounded the
hill, and Prince Laya being unable to obtain supplies was becoming
short of food. There only remained to him a little fish condiment
and a few rice crumpets, hence this hill is known as Savey Kapi Hill
(เขาเสวยกะบี่). The shortage of food became so great that the princess
told Prince Laya to go down to her father and beg pardon for his
offence. The two young people went to the old prince. He forgave
them and, returning to his own city, performed the marriage cere-
mony with great pomp and splendour, and sent the newly married
couple to the city of Chao Laya.

        The king, in his version, mentions certain acts as the cause of
giving names to certain things and places, which need not be men-
tioned here, as they are already recorded in the real tradition.







PT. 1]                           THE KOH LAK TRADITION                           15



                                                     Part Three.

        A Dissertation on the Koh Lak Tradition luith a Suggestion
                                              of its Signijicancc.

Is the Koh Lak tradition, which I have recorded in Part One,
an invention or not ? I think the answer must be that this story
is based on some happenings, which occurred in this locality in an-
cient times, and that this story has been handed down from father
to son. This tradition is known throughout the Peninsula as far
south as Chaiya. The population of this district is now composed
of people from Bejraburi and from across the Burmah border, for in
that area the population is largely Thai, descendants of the Thai who
settled during the Siamese occupation. [Vide Dr. A. F. G. Kerr's Note
on a Trip from Prachuab (Koh Lak) to Mergui, published in the
Journal of the Siam Society, Vol. XXVI, Pt. 2]. The ancestors of
many of those living here and in the adjoining regions must have
taken part in the Thai penetration towards the south, either as
soldiers, traders or agriculturists. They took part in the wars which
ended with the establishment of the supremacy of the Thai authority
in this region. I think the tradition refers to one of these struggles
and probably the first of them, that is, the southern movement in
which the king of Sukhothai ( Ram Kamheng ) added this region and
that south of it, including Nakorn Sri Dhammaraj, to his dominions
probably about A.D. 1268 or a few years earlier.

My interpretation of this Koh Lak tradition, therefore, is that
it refers to that period in Siamese history when the Thai people,
under their King in Sukhothai, were extending their influence and
pushing south and west, which they did by two methods :—(1) By a
military movement down the Nakorn Chaisri and Mae Klong rivers,
till they occupied the whole peninsula to the south of Nakorn Sri
Dhammaraj. This movement must have occupied many years to
complete. As it seems that the Thai suzerainty was established over
Sri Dhammaraj and a portion of the Malay Peninsula lying to the
south about A. D. 1268, then the military movement must have

commenced before that year. This military movement was made
possible by the defeat of Prince Sam Chun of Muang Chod (ฉอด),
by Prince Ramaratha a year or so after his father Phya Sri Indra
Bodindradithya became king. Muang Chod is situated in Tambala







16                              FRANCIS H. GILES                             [VOL. XXX


Mae Ttii) (แม่ตื่น) of the sub-Amphur Mae Ramat (แม่ระมาด) of Am-
phur Mae Sod in the province of Tak. This event must have taken
place about A. D. 1238. In the battle the father was worsted, but
the son Ramaratha came to his father's assistance and defeated
Prince Sam Chun. This battle was fought at old Tak, which lies on
the right bank of the Ping River a few miles south of where the
Wang River joins the Ping. King Sri Indra Bodindradithya con-
ferred on his son Ramaratha the title of Ram Kamheng as a reward
for his bravery. Now that Prince Sam Chun had been disposed of,
the road to the south was open. The Thai took advantage of this
and the military movement south commenced. All the Thai com-
munities living in this southern region were gradually brought with-
in the dominion of Sukhothai. That there were Thai settlements
already established in the valleys of the Chao Phya, Subpan, and
Mae Klong rivers from about the 5th century of the Christian era
cannot be doubted. I deal with this question in a separate work.

(2) By political and commercial penetration through Mae Sod into
the Môn Kingdom of Mawtama (Martaban), which was reborn in
A.D. 1281, and which eventually embraced the ancient city of Pegu
and its territories known as Hongsawadi.

It was in the year A. D. 1284 that Magato, who had established
himself in Mawtama in the year A. D. 1281, found himself a ruler
without a title or the five regalia of royalty. Magato had eloped
about the year A. D. 1275 with Princess Debasuda, a daughter of the
king of Sukhothai, who had showered many favours on him. Magato
bethought himself of his Royal master and benefactor in Sukhothai.
He sent an embassy to the king of Sukhothai begging pardon for the
offence he had committed in running away with the king's daughter
during the king's absence on a military expedition against Java-
Malay rebels in the peninsula south of Sri Dhammaraj. He then
informed the king that he had made himself ruler over Mawtama
and the Môn people in that territory and craved the king to confer
on him a royal title and the five regalia of royalty. The King for-
gave Magato and conferred on him the title of King Fa Roa, which,
patent of royalty, was inscribed on a tablet of gold. This patent of
royalty together with a white umbrella, a crown, a sword, a fan and
a pair of golden shoes, which constituted the five emblems of royalty,

were conveyed by an ambassador from Sukhothai and presented to

King Fa Roa in Mawtama in A. D. 1284.





PT. 1]                           THE KOH LAK TRADITION                           17


That trade was carried on between the territory of Sukhothai and
Mawtama, and that Mawtama was the port of export is proved by
the fact that Magato headed a trading party to Sukhothai about A. D.
1268 during the Burmese régime. This trade probably received a
great stimulus after Magato had established himself. The trade
was extensive, and included large consignments of the famous
Savankaloke pottery, which found markets in Africa, Arabia, Persia
and India, as well as in Sumatra, Java, Cambodia, the Philippines
and China. The political ascendancy of Sukhothai continued in this
territory certainly till A. D. 1329, for two of the successors of King
Fa Roa also received titles at the hands of the King of Sukhothai and
were confirmed as Kings of Mawtama by him. The commerce of
Sukhothai probably continued to use Mawtama as the port of export
for a long period after A. D. 1329. It is significant that the King of
Sukhothai sent an embassy to the court of the Mongolian Emperor of
China in Peking in the year A. D. 1298-99, and King Fa Roa also
sent an embassy to. China in the same year. This would seem to
prove that Mawtama was to some extent dependent politically on
Sukhothai. The Sukhothai embassy was sent to beg the Emperor to
confer on the king the same gifts of honour as the Emperor of China
had given to the preceding monarch. These gifts were a white horse,
a saddle, a whip and a coat of gold embroidery. The Emperor refused
to comply with this petition and only sent the gold garment. Such
an embassy conveying such a request could only have been sent to
inform the Emperor of the death of the reigning King, and to ask
for his Imperial recognition of his successor. The king who had
died must have been Ram Kamheng, and his death must have taken
place about the year A. D. 1297 or 1298. An embassy had been sent
to Peking from Sukhothai in A. D. 1295 when no such request was
made. This fact supports my theory that Ram Kamheng died about
the time mentioned. If we examine the Paw Khun Ram Kamheng
inscription, it will be found that the last of his acts recorded thereon
took place about A. D. 1294. This is a further proof that he died

shortly after A. D. 1294. If he reigned till A. D. 1317, as many

Siamese scholars believe, then some of the events which took place
between A. D. 1294 and 1317, a period of twenty-three years, would
certainly have been recorded.

The Koh Lak story leads one to believe that the Thai, in their
southward movement, had just occupied the city of Padja, modern





18                                   FRANCIS H. GILES                             [VOL. XXX


Bejraburi, and that the ruling prince was one called Ubalabongs
(อุบลพงศ์). This word means " The lineage of the Lotus ". It is a
curious fact that the King of Nakorn Sri Dhammaraj, Chandrabhanu,
described himself? in the year A. D. 1230 as belonging to the lineage
of the lotus (ปฐมวงศ์). Can there be any connection ? South of
Padja Mawng Lai, probably a prince of the house of Chaiya, still
retained power in Koh Lak.

He, seeing that it would be difficult to resist the southward
march of the Thai, deemed it politic to enter into friendly relations
with the prince of Padja. He headed the mission himself. An
agreement was entered into between Prince Mawng Lai and Prince
Ubalabongs, which was to be ratified by Prince Mawng Lai giving
his daughter Yom Doey to Prince Laya, the son of the Prince of
Padja. Everything was proceeding favourably to cement this alliance
by Prince Laya accompanying Mawng Lai to Koh Lak. Prince Laya
and his bodyguard came to the frontier between Padja and Koh Lak,
where he camped. On his way he was met by a hostile force and
a battle ensued in which the Koh Lak forces were driven back.
Prince Mawng Lai was much aggrieved by this action of his people and
tried to make amends to Prince Laya by facilitating his march by
building bridges over the swampy grounds. The sea at that time
extended much further west than today, and it is probable that the
Prince's march was through marshy ground. Prince Mawng Lai
placated Prince Laya, and then proceeded to his own capital to
arrange for the marriage of his daughter. The tradition tells us
what happened. It is probable that with the death of Mawng Lai, the
advance of the Thai southwards was rendered much easier and that
they pushed forward with great vigour, partly to avenge the death
of their young Prince Laya. When the military movement south
commenced, all the Thai communities living in this southern region
were gradually brought within the dominion of Sukhothai. That
there were Thai settlements already established in the valleys of the

Chao Phya, Subpan, and Mae Klong rivers from about the 5th cen-
tury of the Christian era cannot be doubted. I deal with this question
in a separate work.

That portion of the tradition which refers to the giving of Thai
names to many places and objects, etc., would seem to be evidence
that the Thai displaced another people, and that this forward move-






PT. 1]                           THE KOH LAK TRADITION                           19


ment went as Ear south as Pak Panang. Now this place is only a
few miles distant from Nakorn Sri Dhammaraj, where Chandra-
hhauu was in authority. This King reigned in Nakorn Sri Dham-
maraj certainly from A. D. 1230-1272, which period synchronises
with the establishment of Thai power in Sukhothai and its expansion.
It was probably at this time that King Chandrabhanu came under
the protection of Sukhothai. Evidence to show who Chandrabhanu
was will be found in the Wat Hua Vieng inscription, which tells us
that Chandrabhanu ruled in Nakorn Sri Dhammaraj in the 2332nd
year of the Kaliyuga, which synchronises with the year A. D. 1230.
This establishes the fact that King Chandrabhanu, of the lineage of
the Lotus, reigned here from A. D. 1230.

The Maha Vamsa, or Great Chronicle of Ceylon, gives us further
evidence about this King It relates that a King named Chandra-
bhanu led a Malay army by sea to attack Ceylon aud waged war on
that country twice during his reign. The dates for these two expe-
tions are not given, but they took place during the reign of Parak-
kama Bahu II. That King had re-established the Sinhalese power
in Langka by driving out the foreign usurpers. The Kingdom of
Langka was attacked by King Chandrabhanu with a great army of
Malays, equipped with weapons and engines of war. This attack
took place in the eleventh year of the reign of Parakkama Bahu II,
which would be A. D. 1251. Chandrabhanu was defeated with the
greatest difficulty after many fierce battles had been fought, for it
would seem that the Malay army had entered Langka at many ports
and held most of the strategic positions.

Chandrabhanu, some years later, led another army of Malays
over the seas, and again attacked Langka during this same reign.
This time he was supported by forces from the Pandu and Chola
countries. These Tamils were actuated by the desire for revenge
and to regain what they had lost when Parakkama Bahu II. had

driven them out of Langka. King Chandrabhanu and his allies were

again defeated, and driven out of the island. The ambition which
actuated King Chandrabhanu to wage these two wars was his desire
to obtain the Holy Tooth Relic. He failed. There is no reference
in the Maha Vamsa to the Sihingka Buddha. King Parakkama
Bahu II. reigned from A. D. 1240 to 1275. Some authorities put
this reign forward by a few years.







20                                      FRANCIS H. GILES                             [VOL. XXX


The Maha Vamsa places on record that the first war was waged
during the eleventh year of the reign of this monarch, A. D. 1251,
and that the second war was waged in the last years of the reign.
As the story of the last war is related just before the death of this
King, I would suggest A. D. 1271. Dr. Sir R. O. Winstedt states
in his work "The History of Malaya", page 29, that " Chandrabha-
nu attacked Ceylon first in A. D. 1236 and finally with the King of
Hinayana Sukhodaya probably threw off the yoke of Mahyama
Jambi and allied with the kings of Pandya certainly failed in the
second attack on Ceylon, in A. D. 1256. Pandya inscriptions
indicate that Chandrabhanu ruled Kadaram, that is Kedah, without
which he would have lacked a port on the Bay of Bengal for his
attempt to wrest Buddha's Tooth from Ceylon." Dr. Winstedt also
states that not only did Jambi or the Malayu country lose Ligor (Sri
Dhammaraj ) but also other territories. This statement is most
important as it shows by what means and about what time the Thai
of Sukhothai established themselves in Sri Dhammaraj and even
further south. It is to be regretted, however, that Dr. Winstedt does
not give us any authority for his dates or for the friendly relations
existing between Sukhothai and Sri Dhammaraj. It further appears
that in A. D. 1275 Kartanagara, ruler of East Java, from Singhasari
made an attempt and to some extent succeeded in establishing his
rule over the Malayan country, for it would seem that he added
Pahang to his State about A. D. 1286. The fighting which took
place between 1275 and 1286 affected the authority of Sukhothai in
this region, and it is probable that the expedition against the Java
Malay rebels headed by King Ram Kamheng, referred to in the
Rajadhiraj (a Môn History), was carried out at this time. It was
about A. D. 1275 that Magato eloped with the King's daughter
during the King's absence suppressing a rebellion of Java Malays.
This Magato destroyed the Burmese power in Mawtama, and estab-
lished himself as King over the Mon, A. D. 1281.

The Chronicle of the Sihingka Buddha throws some light on
the relations between a King of Sukhothai and a King of Nakorn Sri
Dhammaraj. The King of Sukhothai was probably Ram Kamheng;
and the King of Nakorn Sri Dhammaraj was probably Chandrabha-
nu. This Chronicle tells us that the King of Sukhothai - and ap-
parently this King was known under several names and the inference
gained from these names goes to show that he was Ram Kamheng-






PT. 1]                           THE KOH LAK TRADITION                           21


was overcome by a desire to possess the Sihingka Buddha. He went
to Nakorn Sri Dhammaraj in person, and explained his desire to the
King of that territory. He even commanded that King to obtain
possession of the Buddha then in Ceylon. The wording of the Chronicle
is precise. It states that the King of Nakorn Sri Dhammaraj was
commanded to obtain the statue by using all means at his disposal.
The translation of the passage referring to the command of the king of
Sukhothai is : " By stratagem even going so far as to use the name,
prestige and power of the King of Sukhothai to force the King of
Langka and the people of the city from their arrogance into acquies-
cing in obtaining the Sihingka statue unto him (the King of Sukhothai)
to worship." The King of Nakorn Sri Dhammaraj sent an em-
bassy to Ceylon. The King of Ceylon gladly gave this image of the
Buddha to the ambassadors and thus the Sihingka Buddha arrived
in Nakorn Sri Dhammaraj after many vicissitudes and adventures
on the sea. The Sihingka Chronicle tells us something of importance,
namely, that when this image of the Buddha arrived at Nakorn Sri
Dhammaraj some of the Sukhothai soldiers garrisoned in Sri Dham-
maraj were sent to Sukhothai to inform King Suraraj. The word
Suraraj means the brave king, and the word Ram Kamheng means
Rama the Brave. There can be no doubt that these two names
refer to one and the same monarch. This Monarch went in person
to Sri Dhammaraj to take over the image, which was carried with
great ceremony and pomp to Sukhothai. This statement, if true,
certainly proves that the King of Sukhothai was the suzerain power.
As Chandrabhanu probably died about A. D. 1272 after his return
from waging his second war on Ceylon, the power of Sukhothai must
have extended to this territory many years earlier.

Some Siamese scholars believe that the Thai power was estab-
lished in Sukothai under Phya Sri Indra Bodindradhitya about the
year A. D. 1256 or 1257. In my work dealing with the Kingdom of

Sukhothai, which is in course of preparation, I advance the theory,
which I support with certain evidence, that the Thai Kingdom of
Sukhothai was established some twenty years earlier, that is about
A. D. 1237. King Sri Indra Bodindradithya and his son Bala Muang
are believed to have reigned for twenty years. If this belief is correct,
the Prince Ram Kamheng ascended the Throne in A. D. 1257 and
not A. D. 1277 as is thought by many Siamese scholars. It is
generally held that King Ram Kamheng reigned for forty years.






22                               FRANCIS H. GILES                               [VOL. XXX


There is evidence in the archives kept during the Mongol ascendency
in China to show that King Ram Kamheng died in A. D. 1297,
or at the latest A. D. 1298, and not A. D. 1317. If I am correct,
then, King Ram Kamheng was on the Throne during this period of
the great expansion of Thai powers, and it was he who an-
nexed Nakorn Sri Dhammaraj to the Thai dominions and even
extended that power into the Malay country south of that place.
The events recorded in the Mahavamsa and the Sihingka Chroni-
cle all took place before AD. 1277 the year, in which Siamese
scholars believe that Prince Ram Kamheng ascended the throne.
All evidence goes to prove that it was King Ram Kamheng
who established Thai sovereignty over Sri Dhammaraj and
portions of the Malay Peninsula. If my interpretation of the Koh
Lak tradition is correct then the Thai people at the same time wrested
the eastern coast including Chantabun from the Khmer, for Chantabun
as well as many islands in the Gulf including Si-chang are mentioned
in the tradition. Therefore this king must have been on the throne
prior to A. D. 1277. The name of the island Si-chang has always
been a matter of controversial argument. This tradition gives us
a clue. This island Koh Si-chang (ษีชัง) is the island of the World-
hating Hermit, and not ษีชัง.

The object of this paper is merely to place the Koh Lak Tradi-
tion on record and to make a few suggestions as to what happened
to bring about the death of Prince Mawng Lai, and the probable
date of these happenings. The paper may seem fragmentary and to
lack a positive background. This cannot be avoided as the tradition
itself gives us little help in clearing up an obscure historical event.
The movement of the Thai south to Nakorn Sri Dhammaraj and into
the Malayan peninsula is a matter of some historical importance, and
forms a glorious page in the history of the Thai people. This epi-

sode is one of the most important events in the establishment of the
Thai power in Sukhothai, and had far reaching results. This episode
is being dealt with by me in a separate work. This work is advan-
ing towards its completion and deals with the establishment of the
Thai in the north in pre-Christian days, and their advance south to
the Gulf of Siam when they drove the Khmer out of Lavaratha
and established themselves in the valley of the Suphan River,
centuries prior to the consolidation of their power in Sukothai and
Ayudhya. This work gives out many new theories supported by








PT. 1]                           THE KOH LAK TRADITION                           23


evidence to show that the Thai people were in the delta of the
Menam Suphan and Chao Phya about the fifth century of the
Christian era.

As this paper is one dealing with a phase or period in history,
it may seem out of place to talk about such trivial matters as Love
philtres. But as it was due to the use of a love philtre that the death
of Mawng Lai and many persons was brought about, and the Thai
were thus enabled to push south, I feel that the Love philtre in this
particular case is of some importance. Love philtres, their prepara-
tion and use are interesting, and as this Love philtre belongs to the
type known as Nam Man Prai, I propose to give some information
about it in a separate paper.

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