Notes The Early SYÂM in Burmas History. พิมพ์ อีเมล
เขียนโดย G. H. Luce   

 

LUCE, G.H. THE EARLY SYÂM in BURMAS HISTORY. JSS. VOL.47 (pt.1) 1959. p.91-101.

 

 

                    THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMAS HISTORY

348. 348_1Chu-fan-chih, 2  chüan, by  348_2Chao  Ju-kua of
the   Sung   dynasty.  Transl.   by    Hirth   and   Rockhill : Chan   Ju-kua;
his  work   on  the Chinese  and   Arab   trade  in  the  XIIth  and  XIIIth
cent.
(1912, St. Petersburg).

349.   Sung-shih, ch. 489, Section on Chên-la.

350.  350_1   Têng-liu-mei.  See    Pelliot,    BEFEO    t. IV,   p. 233.

351.  351_1  Ling-wai-tai-ta, 10ch.,  by    351_2   Chou  Ch'ü-fei.

Contained  in   the 351_3 Chih-pu-tsu-chai-ts'ung-shu  of
 351_4    Pao    T'ing-po,   1787   (Shanghai,   Ku-shu-liu-t'ung-ch'u,
1921_240 vols. ). I  regret  that  I  have  no  access  to  this  important
work.

352.  352_1Tan-mei-liu kingdom. See  section  on  it  at  the  end
of ch. 489 of   the Sung-shih. The  section  begins  as  follows (I  add
Pelliot's  identifications  given  on  pp.  233 - 4 of  BEFEO t. IV):  "To
the east, to reach   352_2  Chan-la (Cambodia) is 50 stages. To the
south, to reach    352_3  Lo-yÜeh (Johore) is 15 stages by  water. To
the west, to  reach  352_4  Hsi-t'ien  (India)   is   35   stages.  To   the
north, to reach 352_5    Ch'êng-liang  is  60 stages. To the northeast,
to reach  352_6   Lo-hu (Lavo)  is  25  stages. To  the  southeast,  to
reach     352_7    Shê-p'o (Java)  is 45 stages.To  the  southwest, to
reach   352_8   Ch'êng-jo  is  15  stages.  To  the northwest, to reach

352_9Lo-hua is 25 stages.To the northeast, to  reach  352_10 Kuang-
chou   (Canton)   is  135  stages.  " Tan-mei-liu   itself   Pelliot   would
place at Ligor, Nagara Śrï Dharmarāja.

353.  353_1   Po-ssǓ-lan. Chên-li-fu.

354.   États   hindouisés, p. 304.

355.   355   San-lo.

356.   356  Hsien-lo. See Ming-shih ch. 324, and  Pelliot,  BEFEO
t. IV, p. 235.

 

 

 

                                                 

92                                                   G.H. Luce

 

357.   357  Lo-hu.

358.   358   P'u-kan.

359.   359   Wa-li.

360. The    Pali    stone    inscription    (Pl. V 548a)   of   Śrï    Bajrāb-
haraa,   probably   Ma    Lula   (Sawlu),  Aniruddha's   son    and

successor, found  at   Maung  Law  Kwin,  S.E. of  Mergui, seems to
shew   that   Aniruddha's   conquests  extended far south  of  Thaton.
Kyanzittha's    minister,   "the   sambeṅ   Anantajeyyabhikrān    who
guards   Dawāy"   (Tavoy), has   left  Old   Mon   plaques  near Mokti
village, south   of   Tavoy    (see  Rep. Arch. Surv. Burma, 1924,  pp.
38-40).  Kyanzittha's   grandson,  in  1164  or  earlier,  was  involved
in   quarrels   with   Parakkama   Bāhu   I  of  Ceylon,  which  appear,
from ch. 76 of the Cūḷavasa, to have concerned rights of passage
over  the   Isthmus  of   Kra.   His    successor,  Narapatisithu, in   his
Dharmnarājaka    inscription   (Pl. I 197-8,  1198 A.D.), gives  as  the
southern  limits  of   his  kingdom  a  whole  series of  places difficult
to  read, but  probably  extending  well  below  the Isthmus:— Taway
(Tavoy),   Cañhat    (?)    Sathut    (?),    Tanasare   (Tenasserim),

Takwā   (Takua-pa),   Salakre    (Junk Ceylon?),   and    two    other
places   hardly   legible,   ending   with   a   city.... nakuiw'    (nagara).

361.  361 Chia-lu-na-ta-ssǔ (Y.S., ch. 134).

362.  362 Hsing-ha-la-ti-wei. For early Chinese references

to Ceylon, see BEFEO, t. IV, p. 356 follg.

363.   363  Ma-pa-êrh (see Y.S., ch. 210).

 364. K.A.   Nilakanta   Sastri,  A   History  of  South   India,   p.  212.

365.  365  Chü-lan.

366.  366   Hsü-mên-na.

367.  367  Sêng-chi-li.

368.  3681  Nan-wu-li.    =  the    3682    Nan-wu-li   of   the  Y.S.

(ch. 18, Nov. 17th, 1294), the   3683   Lan-wu-li   of   Chao  Ju-kua,
etc. (see BEFEO, t. IV, pp. 327, 344).

 

 

 

 

 

                        THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA’S HISTORY                             93

 

369. 369  Ma-lan-tan.   See    Pelliot,  BEFEO,  t.IV,   pp. 344-5

 

 

and n. 1.

 

 

370.  370  Na-wang.

 

371.  371   Ting-ko-êrh.  See   Pelliot,  BEFEO,  t.IV,  p.344  and

 n. 6.

372.  372 Lai-lai.

373.  373 Chi-lan-i-tai.

 374.  3741    Su-mu-tu-la,    3742  Su-mu-tu-la, 3743

Su-mu-ta-la,   3744  Su-mu-ta, etc.

375. BEFEO, t. IV, p. 327, n. 4.

 376.  For  the  Uigurs  and  their  very  mixed  culture, see  R. Grousset,

 Histoire  de   l'Extrême-Orient   (1929),   pp.356-9,  406-7;    L'Empire

 des Steppes (1948), pp. 161-2.

 377.  377  Hsin-chü Jih.

 378.   378 P'o.

 379.  3791 Tuan. The  Tuan   were  kings  of  Ta-li  at  least   from 1117

 A.D.,   when    3792   Tuan   Ho-yü  sent  an embassy  to  the  Sung

 Court (Sung-shin ch. 488, Section on Ta-li).

 380.  380 Kao.

381. 3811  Hsien   Tsung,  Chinese  title   of   the  Mongol  Emperor,

 

Möngkä (fl. 1251-59). His   younger    brother,  Khubilai, was  ordered

to  "invade  the  south"  in  1252, not 1253. (see Y.S., ch. 3, 2nd  year

 of      Hsien    Tsung,   7th     month    (Aug.7th-Sept.5th 1252):     "The

Emperor ordered  3812    Hu-pi-lieh   to   attack  3813Ta-li." On

Möngkä's death, in 1259, Khubilai succeeded as the Emperor 3814

Shin Tsu.

 

382.  3821 Kao Hsiang. See Y.S., ch.4, 12th month, ping-chê day

(Jan.7th, 1253):   "The    army    reached    Ta-li    city.   Formerly,   the 

lord  of   Ta-li,  of   the   Tuan   family,  had   gradually   become   weak.

 State   affairs   were   all   decided   by  the brothers Kao Hsiang  and

 3822 Kao  Ho. That   night   (Kao)   Hsiang   took  his  followers  and

escaped. The   great   general   3823  Yeh-ku-chi-pa-t'u-êrh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

94                                              G.H. Luce

 

was  ordered  to  pursue  him. As   soon  as   the   Emperor   entered
Ta-li, he  said: 'The  city  has  been  captured, but  my  ambassadors
have  not  been  produced. I  think   they   must   be   dead.'   (3  days
later they discover the corpses of the three ambassadors) Kcuei-hai
day  (Jan. 14th, 1253).  Kao  Hsiang  was  captured  and  beheaded

at 3824  Yao-chou. "

383. 383 Tuan Hsing-chih.

384. 384  Hsin-chü Fu   (I   follow   the   reading   in   the   Pai-na

 text).

385. 385 Mo-ho-lo-ts'o (mahārāja).

386. For Uriyangqatai, see n. 17 and text.

387. 387 Chiao-chih.

388. 3881  Ta-li;  3882  Shan-shan  (Yunnan    Fu); 3883 Wei-ch'u
(Ch'u-hsiung);   3884    T'ung-shih     ( Yao-chou);   3885   Hui-ch'uan
(see   Man-shu  ch. 1;  it   was   then  at  the  south  end  of  the  Chien-
ch'ang   valley,  north   of   the  Yangtzǔ,  on  the  Nan-chao  side  of the
frontier); 3886 Chien-ch'ang;3887 T'eng-yüeh.

389. 389 Nan-tien of Gold Teeth. See n. 59.

390. 390 Hu-tu. See n. 57 and text.

391. 391 Mêng Hua, S. of Ta-li Lake.

392.  392  A-ch'ing. The  Eastern   Palace  was  the   residence  of

 the Heir-Apparent.

393.  393  Pai-ta-êrh ( Baidar ).

394. According   to   the   Man-shu  ch. 8, the Western  Ts'uan   word

 for Salt  was3941pin  (pien), the  Eastern Ts'uan word  was 3942chu,

 hsou  or   jou  (according   to  the  K'ang-hsi  dictionary).  The   latter,

 going  back  to  a  T'ang   pronunciation   like kou or kiu (see B. Karl-

 gren, Analytic Dictionary of Chinese, No. 484 ), bears some resem-

 blance to Shan kuiw, Siamese เกลือ.

 395.3951   Hsi-li-ch'ien-pu.   3952  Ai-lu (Airuq?).

 396. 396   T'ang-wu    (Tangut).

 

 

 

 

 

                    THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA’S HISTORY                           95

 

397. Chi-wei  year  (1259 A.D.). — This  cannot  be the campaign

 against  Ta-li   (1252-3). It   must  refer  to  Khubilai's  crossing of

 the  Yang-tzǔ   in  1259  to meet Uriyangqatai coming up from the

 south.

 398. 398  Ta-ming Road in Chihli.

 399. 3991 P'iao-tien. The  same as 3992 P'iao-tien. See  n. 29,

 and Huber p. 666.

 400. 4001   Huo-pu-ma. A   misprint   for  4002T'ien-pu-ma,

 the  Nam  Kham  route  into  Burma. See n. 52, and  Huber p. 665.

 401. 401Chung-ch'ing Road(Yünnan Fu and neighbourhood).

 402.  402 Yung-ch'ang (modern Pao-shan).

 403. 403 Hsiang-wu-êrh. For  Hsiang-wu-ta-êrh (Sängqüdär).

 See n. 77 and text.

 404. For   the   Tangut   and   Hsi-hsia  (capital    Ning-hsia),   see

 R.  Grousset,  Hist,  de    l'E-O.,  p. 370,  n. 3; 371,  n. 1;  424, etc.;

 B.   Laufer,  " The  Si-Hia   Language," T'oung-pao,  mars   1916.

 405. 405Sai-tien-ch'ih, Sayyid  Äjäl. See n. 62, and Grousset,

 op. cit., p. 459 and n. 7; p. 460, n. 1.

406. 406   Fa-su-la-ting,  Nâsir ed-Dîn. See  n. 62  and  text.

407. 407 Hu-hsin, Husain.

408. 408 Lo-p'an tien. See supra, p.

409. 409 ch'iu,   'autumn    hair.'  For   this   curious   expression,
see  H.A. Giles,Chinese English Dictionary (2nd. Ed.),   No. 3873.

410. 4101  Yün-nan  Road. I  do  not  know a Road of this name

under the Yuan. I think the meaning is "all the
various Roads of Yunnan. "

411. 411  P'u  and   P'iao, Ch'ü-la,  and   Mien   kingkom.
See notes 29, 31, 56.

412. 412  Shan-ssǔ-ting,  Shams   ud-Dîn, " Sun  of   the  Faith,"
the Muslim title of Sai-tien-ch'ih.

413. 413Yeh-han-ti-chin, Yagan-těgin (n. 76).

414. 414Hsia-la-lu, Qarluq.

 

 

 

 

 

96                                                        G.H. Luce

 

415. 415 T'ai-pu (n. 75).

 416.416 Hsiang-wu-ta-êrh, Sängqüdär (n. 77).

 417. 417 "the   two  rivers, A-hsi   and   A-ho. " The  A-hsi

 is the Nam Ti, and the A-ho  the Ta-p'ing. See  Huber, p. 669  and n. 1.

 418. 418    Chiang-t'ou     ('Riverhead')     city,     i.e.,    Kaungzin

 (Old Burm. Koca). See n. 64.

419. 419 Lai Shih-an.

420. See n. 81.

 421. See n. 82.

 422. See n. 82.

 423. For    the   Qarluq,  see  Grousset, Hist,   de l'E.-O., p. 407 and

 n. 3. For těgin, ibid., p. 416, n. 3.

424. 4241   Hsüan   Shih-an    (Y.S., ch.   210,   Section on Mien).

 4242 "Yuan Shih-an ( Ruber's text, p. 669 ).

425. 4251Chang-wan-chia-nu. 4252  Pao-t'ung.

 426. 426  T'ai-kung    city,   i.e.   Tagaung    (Old   Burm. Takoh)

See n. 82.

 427. 427  Shan-tan   of   Kan-chou   (in  Kansu).   Lat.  38° 50',

Long. 101° 29' (Playfair, No. 5462).

 428. 4281  Yeh-l'ü   T'u-hua.   4282   Mang-ku-tai  (Mängütäi).

 429. 429 Ch'i-tan ( Khitai, Cathay ).

 430. 430  Chu-ko.

 431. 431 Pao-t'ung.

 432. 432 Lo-pi tien.

 433. 4331 Ta-pên. Possibly    the 4332 Ta-pên,  chieftain  of  Gold

 Teeth,  mentioned   in   a   report   dated  Aug. 31st, 1287 (Y.S., ch. 14,

 24th   year,  7th   month,  kêng-hsü   day ):  " 4333 Ai-lu    of   Yünnan

 province  said: 'The   Gold  Teeth  chieftain, Ta-pên  and   others, elder

 and   younger   brothers,  ask   leave   to  submit   to  China.  Moreover

 they request permission to enter the Presence. ' "

 434. 434 A-t'ai.

 

 

 

 

 


                     THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA’S HISTORY                             97

 

435. For   the  Ch'i-tan  (Khitai),  see   Grousset,  Hist.de   I'E.-O.,

pp. 365-367. For the Qarā-Khitai, see ibid., pp. 407-8,etc.See
also his L'Empire des Steppes, pp. 180-8, 219-222.

436. 436 Pu-lu-ho-ta, Buru'u-qada.

437. 4371   Hung-chi-la    (Ongirat)      Mêng-ku       (Mongol).

438. 438 T'an-an-ma-ch'ih  (Tamachi).Tamachi  troops, as
distinct from Mongol troops, were those enlisted from  the  other
tribes and clans of Central Asia (see Y.S., ch. 98).

439. 439 Mêng-ku-tai.

440. 440 Ch'ê-li (Chieng Rung, n. 114).

441. 441 K'uo-k'uo ( Kökö, " the Blue Prince, " n. 272 ).

442. 4421 Hou Chêng. A4422tu-chên-fu  was  a minor  pro-
vincial  officiai. According to Y.S., ch. 91, each  province  had  a
tu-chên-fu-ssǔ, with  one tu-chên-fu   officer  and  one  assistant.

443. 443Mang-ku-pu-hua ( Mängü-buqa).

444. For the Ongirat, see Grousset, Hist, de l'E.-O., p. 404 and

n. 3; L'Empire des Steppes, p. 248.

445. 4451Ts'uan (n. 63). 4452 P'o (n. £7, 378).

446. 4461 Lo-lo. 4462 Ho-ni (n. 154, 156, 177 ).

447. Y.S., ch. 10, 15th year of chih-yüan, 4th month, ping-ch'ên

day.

 448. 4481Yo-la-hai.Called 4482Yao-la-hai in the pên-chi

(n. 449). Yauraqai?

449. Y.S., ch. 13, 21st year, 10th month, mou shèn day.

450. 450 Ch'ieh-lieh.

451. 451T'ai-yüan (capital of Shansi).

452. 452 Chên-hsi   (n.  40),   Mien   (= P'ing-mien,

  n. 42 ), Lu-ch'uan ( n. 41 ) and other Roads.

453. 453kuan-chün-chao-t'no-shih.

454. 4541   Ch'êng-tu   (capital of Ssǔch'uan ). 4542  Wu-mêng.

455. 455 P'iao   kingdom. A  surprising   expression. The P'iao

 ( Old   Burm. Pyū) had   two  capitals: Śrī Ketra ( Old Prome ) in

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

98                                             G.H. Luce

 

he  7th-8th  cent., and  probably  Halin   (Old Burm. Hanla) near
Shwebo  in  the  8th-9th. I  hardly  think   Ch'ieh-lieh   would   have
been  posted  to  either  of  these  in  the 13th. I  prefer,  therefore,
to regard " P'iao kingdom " as an archaistic term here applied to
the Burmese capital, Pagan. And  it  recalls  to  my mind the  fact
that Stone 5 at Pagan  Museum (found near the main gate of  the
city)  has  a  Pyū inscription on the east face, and  a Chinese one
on the  west. Neither  has  been  read, though  expert  rubbing  of
the   latter  might   well  yield  some  meaning  to  the  expert.  Did
Ch'ieh-lieh "encourage the nationalists" by seeking to  revive  the
Pyū language ?

 456. 4561 Chêng-i-ta-fu. 4562ch'ien-mien-

chung-hsing-chung-shu-shêng-shih.

457. 457  t'ung-fêng-ta-fu.See Giles' Dictionary  (2nd Ed.),

No. 12, 294.

458. 458tzǔ-shan-ta-fu.

459. See n. 361.

460.460 Wei-wu-êrh (Uigur). For the Uigur Turks, see

n. 376 and text.

461. See n. 362.

462. 4621Hsien (n. 111). 4622 Lo-hu (n. 112). 4623Ma-pa-êrh

(n. 363). 4624  Ch'ü-lan   (n. 365, Quilon). 4625  Su-mu-tu-la

( n. 374, Samudra).

463. 463 Yo-la-yeh-nu-t'ieh-mieh.

464. 464 Ch'êng Tsung (Tämür Öljaitu, ft. 1295-1307).

465 465 Jên Tsung (ft. 1311- 1320).

466 466 ssù-t'u.

467 467 Liu Chêng.

468. 468 t'ung-ch'ien-shu-mi-yuan-shih.

469. 469   Mang-wu-t'u-lu-mi-shih   (Mängü   Türümish).
See also n. 194.

470. 470 Ha-la-tai ( Qaratai ). See also n. 299, 307.

 

 

 

 

 

                         THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA’S HISTORY                      99

 

471. 471 Ha-lu ( Qarluq). Cf. n. 414, 423.

472. 472 tzŭ .tê-ta-fu.

473. 473Lin Shên, Cf. n. 299, 307.

474. See n. 113.

475. 475Sung Lung-chi.

476. 476Ju-chou (in Honan).

477. Y.S., ch. 20, 5th year of ta-tê, 5th month, jên-hsü day.

478. 478 Shün-yuan.This  was a  Road  on   the  Yünnan-Kueichou

 border, now   under  Kuei-yang   district   of   Kueichou   ( see  Tsang

 Li-huo's Comprehensive Chinese Gazetteer ( 1930, Shanghai Com-

  mercial Press), p. 972.

479. 479 Yüeh Hu-nan.

480. Y.S., ch. 21, 8th   year  of   ta-tê, 1st   month,   kêng-shên    day.

481. 481Sung A-chung.

482. Y.S., ch. 21, 8th year, 5th month, chi-ssǔ day.

483. 483 T'o-t'o-i-chi-li.

484. 4841 Ch'ên T'ien-hsiang. 4842 Ch'ên Hu.

485. 4851  hsing-Vai    of    Honan.  4852yü-shih-chung-

ch'êng

486. 4861 Pa-fan. Called  4862   Pa-fan-lo  below  in  this same
extract.  "The   chief    of    the   Pa-fan  Cave   barbarians"   sent   an
embassy  to   China,  with   Hsien, on  Feb.  6th, 1323  (n. 133).  See
Pelliot's    note,   BEFEO  t. IV,  p. 244,   n. 1. On  Nov.  26th   of    the
same year ( Y.S., ch. 29, 3rd  year   of  chih-chih, 10th   month,  ping-
hsü day), a   mutiny   was  reported  of " Pa-fan, Shun-yüan  ( n. 478 ),

and the 4863Yao  troops of the various Roads of  4864Ching-chiang
(in Kuanghsi), Ta-li and Wei-ch'u. "

487. 487 Liu Êrh-pa.

488. 4881 Po-chou. Modern 4882 Tsun-i in Kueichou..

489.4891  Wo-kuo  (Japan). 4892 Chan-ch'êng  (Champa). 4893

Chiao-chih (Tongking).4894Chao-wa (Java).

490. 490 Wu Tsung (fl. 1307 - 1311).

491. 491 Great and Little Ch'ê-li.

 

 

 

 

 

 

100                                            G.H. Luce

 

492. 492Nang-chia-tai ( Nangkiyatai ).

493. 493Mien. To these translations of the Sections on Mien and

Hsien, I add  in   the   notes  only the Chinese  of   names, etc., not

given in the body of the article.

494.  I doubt if the l eaf   of  the   areca-nut ( 494pin-lang,  Malay

pinang, Areca catechu) was   used  in  Old  Burma   for  stationery,

though I.H. Burkill (A Dictionary of  the Economic Products of  the

Malay  Peninsula, Vol. I, p. 228 ) mentions  modern  experiments,

which  were " disappointing, " in   turning  the  husk  of   the  areca-

nut   into paper. I  suspect  that   "areca"   in   the   text is a mistake

for   another   palm,  whether   palmyra   (Borassus   flabellifer)  or

talipot  (Corypha umbraculifera), which  were  certainly  used   for

writing materials at Pagan.

495. 495Chieh-po.

496. 496 Pu-yün-shih ( Büyünch ? ).

497. 4971Ch'ung'ch'ing, in S.E. Ssǔch'uan   ( 4972 Pa). Lat. 29°  34',

Long. 106° 50' (Playfair, No. 1583).

498. 498 the ch'êng-hsiang T'o-li-to-hai.

499. 499 Ha-la-chang. The   Karajang   or    "Black   Jang"   of

Bashided-din. See Pelliot, BEFEO t. IV, pp. 158-9.

500. 500 A-li-hai-ya ( Ariq-qaya).

501.501Ssǔ, Po,Hsü and other commanderies. Ssǔ-chou

 is   in   Kueichou   (Lat.   27°  11',   Long.  108°  35'-Playfair  5858).

 Po-chou is   in Kueichou (see n. 488). Hsu-chou   is   in  Ssǔch'uan

 (Lat. 28° 47', Long. 104° 51'- Playfair 2895).

 502. 5021I-hsi-pu-hsieh. Also written 5022 I-ch'i-pu-

 hsieh.  "A  special  tribe  of 5023  Lo-shih-kuei kingdom," adds

 the   commentator at the end of Y.S.,ch.10. Here, under  date 16th

 year  of  chih-yilan,  6th   month,  kuei-ssu  day  (July   27th, 1279),

 we   read   that " 5024  Ai-lu, directing   his  troops  from  different

 quarters,   pacified    I-ch'i-pu-hsieh.   " Further    expeditions   took

 place in 1280,when the  tribes submitted ( ch. 11 ), The Emperor's

 

 

 

 

 

 

                         THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA’S HISTORY                         101

 

order, shown  in  the  text, is  dated  April  1st, 1282  in  the  pên-chi
( ch. 12 - 19th year, 2nd month, jên-tzǔ day ).

503. 503 T'êng-ma-chai.

504. 5041 Li-ch'uan. A mistake for5042 Lu-ch'uan.

505. 505 shan-ch'ih.pang.

506. 506 Chang Wan.

507. 507 Yeh-hsien-t'ieh-mu-êrh, Äsän Tamür.

508. 508 Chang Ch'êng.

509. 509 T'u-man-tai (Tümändä'r).

510. 510Ch'a-han-tieh-chi-lien. ( Chagan = White).

511. 511 Kao  Ch'ing. The   same  person  as   the   Kao A-k'ang,

"native chief of Yünnan," of Huber's text (pp. 676-9 ).

512. 5121   Ch'a-han-pu-hua   (Chagan-buqa).  He  had   been

governor  of  5122   Li-chiang  district, says   Huber's  text (p. 679 ),

in the northwest of Yünnan.

513. 513 Hsien.  Pelliot   has   translated  this  Section  at  BEFEO,

t. IV, pp. 242, 243.

514. 514   Wan-tsê-ta-la-han    (Öljäi-darqan).    Ta-la-han,
says  Pelliot, was  an  old  Turkish   title  (BEFEO, t. IV, p. 243, n. 7).

515. 515 Hsin-tu, Sindhu, Hindu, India.

 

 

 


 


 


 

 


 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 


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