The Early SYÂM in Burma's History a Supplement. พิมพ์ อีเมล
เขียนโดย G. H. Luce   

LUCE, G.H. THE EARLY SYAM IN BURMA'S HISTORY,A SUPPLEMENT. JSS. VOL.47 (pt.1) 1959. p.59-90.

 

 

 

                    THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA'S HISTORY

                                    A SUPPLEMENT*

                                                  by

                                          G. H. Luce

 

The basic article under the  title   above was  written  before
I was able to complete my searches of the whole of the Yüan-shih.
With   the  following  supplementary  extracts,  mostly   taken   from

the biographical chapters, I  seek  to  fill   the  gaps ( still, I fear, not
exhaustively ) in the record.

Mr. Chen Yee Sein, my  invaluable  helper,  has  meantime
managed  to  procure a  modern  edition of  the  well-known  Sung
dynasty    treatise,  the  Chu-fan  chih,  "Record  of   Various  Bar-
barians," 1225 A.D., by  Chao Ju-kua.348  He  has pointed  out  to
me that here Chiao-chih  (Tongking)  is   said  to  be  bounded  on
the  west  by  the  Pai-i   ("White Clothes"). This  suggests  to   me
that    the  first   main  door  of  Dai  entry   into   the   Indo-Chinese
peninsula may have been  from the northeast  (the Kuangsi-Upper
Tongking  border)   rather   than    from   the   northwest   (the Sino-
Burman frontier);  that the   oldest   form  of   the   term  Pai-i   was
"White Clothes"  rather than  "White  Barbarians"; and    that    the
suggested origin of the term in late T'ang   times (see n.11 supra),
is  provisionally   tenable, pending   further   search in   T'ang  and

Sung sources.

I  have  assumed  hitherto that Huber  (op. cit., p. 668, n. 2)
was right  in  identifying  Lo-pi tien with  Möng  Hum  state  on  the
tributary  of  the  Upper  Shweli   south   of   Nan-tien-Kan-ai.  And
I  have  assumed, too, that Lo-pei (n. 88), Lo-pu (n. 42), etc., were
variant forms of the same name. Whether Lo-p'an tien  of  Extract
(iii) was the same place is much less likely.According toTSFYCY
(ch. 115, p. 4657), Lo-p'an tien was the original name  of  another

 

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*The author's basic study under this title  was published  in  the
last issue of this
Journal, Volume XLVI,  Part 2. References  in  this
supplementary article are made to the basic study,and the enumeration
of the notes begun in that study is continued here.

 

 

 

 

60                                       G.H. Luce

Lo-pi tien, dependent on  Yuan-chiang  Road, i.e., in S.  (Central)
Yunnan near the Red River. On the  southern  border  hereabouts
was    the   Pai-i  ("White Clothes")   tien   of   Shê-li    (cf. n. 178).
The Pai-i  were  apparently  widespread across S. Yünnan,  from
east to west. But  the term Lo-pi, it  seems,  was  used  for  more
than one place, so that its application must be determined by the
context.

The Chu-fan-chih does not appear to mention Hsien.Both
here and in the Sung-shih,349 to the west o f Chên-la  (Camboja)
was P'u-kan  (Pagan).  Twelve  (or thirteen) States  are  listed  by
Chao Ju-Kua  as tributary  to  Chên-la, some  of  which  were  cer-
tainly in Siam. The first, Têng-liu-mei350also mentioned in the
Ling-wai-tai-ta351 (1178 A.D.) — is  perhaps  the  Tan-mei-liu352
of the Sung-shih, which was 15 stages by  sea  north  of  Lo-yüeh

(Johore). The   second, Po-ssǔ-lan,  and   the  fifth, Chen-li-fu,353
reappear   in   the  Sung-shih   section   on   Chên-la : " A  district

dependent on Chên-la  is Chên-li-fu, which  is  in   the    southwest
corner. To the southeast it touches Po-ssǔ-lan. To  the  southwest
its neighbour is Têng-liu-mei. It   controls  over 60  villages." If Tan-
mei-liu = Tambralinga = Ligor, Prof.  Cœdès  is  doubtless    right
in placing Chên-li-fu and Po-ssǔ-lan along the  coast  of  the   Gulf
of Siam.354 But he can hardly be  right   in   identifying  the   fourth
name, San-lo,355 with "the country of Syām on the  Upper Menam. "
Can he hold that this San-lo of 1225 is the same as the Hsien-lo356
of Ming dynasty texts, i.e., modern  Siam?   Both  characters   are

quite different. Hsien-lo is said to  derive  from  the  union  of   the
two states, Hsien+ Lo-hu, in   the   middle  of   the   14th    century.
As characters, this obviously cannot apply to the  San-lo of  1225.
And Lo-hu357 (Lavo) is already mentioned  here as   the    third of
the dependencies of Chên-la.P'u-kan358(Pagan) is also  included
in the list, and  a  place, Wa-li,359  which   M. Cœdès   places  "in
Upper Burma." I do not know his reasons for  doing  so,  nor   can
I recall any  such  place-name  in  the  inscriptions  of  the   period.
The claim to Pagan as a dependency was  doubtless a mere boast;
but it might  be  based  on a re-occupation   by the Khmers of   the

 

 

 

 

             THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA'S HISTORY                          61

Isthmus  of  Kra, which appears  to have  been  under   the  control
of Pagan from about 1060 to 1200 A.D.360

Extract (xi),  from   the    biography  of    the   Uigur   Chia-lu-
na-ta-ssǔ361 - is not this a Sanskrit or Pali   title, Karuadar'   sin?-
contains one of the earliest mentions of HsienIt shows the Emperor

Shih Tsu ( Khubilai ) — probably soon  after  his  final  conquest  of
China (1279),  and   certainly    before   1287 — making   plans   to
conquer, not only Hsien and Lo-hu, but also  the   Malay   Peninsula,
Sumatra,  Southern  India,  and,  very    likely,  Ceylon.  Hsing-ha-la-
ti-wei
362 I  take  to be  Simhaladīpa,  the   island    of   the  Lion,  i.e.,
Ceylon. There is a  section on  Ma-pa-êrh363   in   Chapter  210  of

the    Yüan-shih,   which   clearly    points , I   think,  to  South   India.
Ma'bar, says  Professor   Nilakanta   Sastri,364   quoting   a'contem-
porary    Muslim   chronicler,'    "extends    in    length   from   Kulam
(Quilon)   to    Nilawar   (Nellore),   " i.e.,   down     the    western   or
Malabar coast  from Quilon to  Cape  Comorin, and   up   the  Coro-
mandel coast as far as Nellore. Chü-lan365 (Quilon)   is   frequently
mentioned in the section of Ma-pa-êrh. From  1280,  if   not  earlier,
several sea-missions passed between  China   and   these  places,
stopping en route, it seems,  in   Siam,  the   Malay  Peninsula  and
the   north   of  Sumatra.  According    to    our  extract,  over  twenty
kingdoms  submitted. In  1286,  according  to  the  Section  on   Ma-
pa-êrh, the following ten kingdoms  beyond  the   sea   sent   tribute:
(i)    Ma-pa-êrh    (including     Chü-lan),    (ii)    Hsü-mên-na,366  (iii)
Sêng-chi-li,367      (iv)   Nan-wu-li,368     (v)  Ma-lan-tan,369    (vi)   Na-
wang,370     (vii)  Ting-ko-êrh,371     (viii)   Lai-lai,372    (ix)   Chi-lan-i-
tai,373 (x)  Su-mu-tu-la.374  Su-mu-ta kingdom,  also  mentioned,  is
doubtless  a  variant  for   Su-mu-tu-la. Pelliot   takes  Hsü-mên-na
to be  the same place, Samudra   in   the    northwest   of    Sumatra,

which has given its name  to  the  island; it  was probably    founded,
he  says, about  1250.375 Nan-wu-li, the Lan-wu-li  of  Chao  Ju-kua
and  Lamuri  of   the  Nagarakretâgama  (1365),  is  Marco   Polo's
Lambri   in  Acheh,  at the far  north  of  the   island.  Na-wang    was
somewhere   on  the route from Chü-lan to China.  Ma-lan-tan  may
well be  a  misprint for the Chi-lan-tan  of  Chao  Ju-kua, i.e.,   Kelan-
tan; and Ting-ko-êrh is probably Trengganu.

 

 

 

 

62                                           G.H. Luce

The  Uigurs376  were   the   most  civilized   of   the   Eastern
Turks, much influenced  by T'ang Chinese,  Manichean,   Nestorian,
Buddhist  and   Islamic   culture.   Karuṇadarśin,   like    his   master
Khubilai,  was  probably  a  Buddhist,   familiar   as   he    was   with
Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Singhalese. His wise words appear  to have
saved these countries from an Armada  invasion, such  as  wrought
havoc in Champa and Java.

For    the    rest,  the   extracts   translated,  which   I   arrange
roughly in chronological   order,  simply   amplify    the    story   given
above. It  suffices   to  add  a  few  comments   after   each.  Transla-
tions  of  the sections on  Mien  and  Hsien are added ( Extracts xvi
and xvii ), for convenience of reference.

Extract    ( i ).  Biography     of     HSIN-GHÜ JIH377    (Y.S., ch. 166).

Hsin-chü Jih   was  a  P'o378  man.  He   was   a  Tuan379   by
family. His  ancestors  for  generations   had    been   kings  of   Ta-li
kingdom.  Latterly    they     were     frequently    dethroned    by   their
powerful ministers of the Kao380 family.

In the year  kuei-ch'ou  (1253 A.D.),  during    the    reign     of
Hsien Tsung,381 Shih Tsu   received  orders   to  invade   the    south.
He  executed  the   minister  Kao Hsiang,382  and    appointed  Tuan
Hsing-chih383 to be lord of the affairs of the kingdom.

            In    the   year     i-mao     ( 1255 A.D.),   Hsing-chih   and    his

 paternal    uncle    Hsin-chü Fu384     entered     the     Presence.   The

Emperor  gave orders   bestowing   on them    the  Gold   Tally,   and

 sent them back to their kingdom.

In    the   year  ping-ch'ên  ( 1256 A.D.),  they   submitted   to
the Emperor a map of their  land, and   requeste   leave    to   pacify
all   the    various   tribes.  At   the  same  time   they    memorialized,
item  by  item, the methods of  governing   the   people  and     fixing
th e taxes. Hsien Tsung was  greatly   pleased,  and   bestowed   on
Hsing-chih    the     name    Mo-ho-lo-ts'o385  (mahārāja),  and   com-
manded him to be lord  of  all  the  various     southern     barbarians,
the White  Ts'uan  and   other  tribes,  and  appointed   Hsin-chü  Fu
to    command     the    army.   Hsing-chih  thereupon  delegated  his

 

 

 

 

            THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA'S HISTORY                   63

government    functions   to   his   younger    brother,   Hsin-chü    Jih,
while  he  himself,  together   with   Hsin-chü   Fu,  led   an   army   of
20,000 P'o  and  Ts'uan, to  act   as   vanguard   and   guide  for  the
great  general   Wu-liang-ho-t'ai   (Uriyangqatai),386 and   to   punish
and pacify  the  unsubdued  parts   of   the   various   commanderies.
They    attacked    and   conquered   Chiao-chih387   (Tongking), and
were  about  to  enter  the  Court  when   Hsing-chih  died on the way.

In   the   2nd    year  of    chung-t’ung   (1261 A.D.),  Hsin-chü
Jih  entered   the  Presence. Shih  Tsu  again bestowed on  him  the
Tiger  Tally, and   ordered   him  to  rule Ta-li ,  Shan-shan,  Wei-ch'u,
T'ung-shih,    Hui-ch'uan,    Chien-ch'ang,   T'êng-yueh388   and  other
cities.  All,  from  the  rank   of   wan-hu    downwards,   were  placed
under his orders.

In    the   1st   year   of   chih-yüan   (1264 A.D.),   the   Ts'uan
tribes    were    pacified. In   the   third   year   (1266 A.D.),   Hsin-chü
Jih    entered   the    Presence.  After     recording    his   merits,    the
Emperor   bestowed   on  him  gold  and   silver,  clothing,  a   saddle,
reins, and weapons of war.

In    the   11th    year   (1274 A.D.),   Sai-tien-ch'ih     was   ap-
pointed    p'ing-chang-chêng-shih   (Grand Secretary)   of     Yunnan
province. He  changed  and   fixed   the   names   and   titles   of   the
various    Roads.  He    appointed     Hsin-chü Jih    as     tsung-kuan
( Governor ) of Ta-li.

In    the   13th   year   (1276 A.D.),   Mien    kingdom   (Burma)
massed several myriads of elephants  and  cavalry,  and   plundered
Nan-tien of Gold  Teeth,389  and  sought  to  take  Ta-li   by   surprise.
The     provincial   authorities   despatched    Hsin-chü Jih,    together
with   the   wan-hu Hu-tu,390  at    the   head  of  a   thousand   cavalry
and    soldiers    to   resist   them. Hsin-chü Jih,  on   account   of   his
services, received appointment  as  hsüan-fu-shih   (Comforter)   of
Ta-li, Mêng Hua391 and other places.

In   the  18th  year  (1281 A.D.),  Hsin-chü Jih   and   his    son
A-ch'ing392 again entered  the   Presence. The    Emperor    praised
his  loyalty  and  diligence, and  promoted  him to be hsüan-wei-shih
(Senior  Comforter)    and     tu-yüan-shuai   (General  Commander)

 

 

 

 

 

64                                           G.H. Luce

of    Ta-li,  Wei-ch'u, Gold  Teeth,  and   other   places.  He   detained
A-ch'ing to  serve  on the night-bodyguard   of   the  Eastern   Palace.
At  the  farewell  audience  he  again  did   homage  on  appointment
as  ts'an-chih-chêng-shih  (State Counsellor)  of  the  various Roads
and provincial administration of Yünnan.

In   the   19th  year  (1282 A.D.), the   Emperor   ordered   him
to   join  the   yu-ch’êng  (Senior   Assistant-Governor),   Pai-ta-êrh393
(Baidar), and  to   go  and  meet  the  Yünnan  army  for  the  invasion

of    Mien   (Burma). He   proceeded  as  far  as  Gold   Teeth,  where
he fell ill and died.

Hsin-chü Jih   had   ruled   Ta-li    for  altogether    twenty-three
years.  His son,  A-ch'ing,   inherited   his    rank    and   was   succes-
sively    appointed   "Senior   General    guarding     the   realm,"  and
hsüan-wei-shih   (Senior Comforter)   and    tu-yùan-shuai  (General
Commander) of Ta-li, Gold Teeth and other places.

Comment. For  Hsin-chü Jih,  see    notes 22, 57. This  scion
of   the  Tuan   line   of   Nan-chao  rulers   was   a   P'o   (n. 27).   The
word,   P'o, does  not   occur   in  the  Man-shu . Whether   the   P'o-i
(P'o barbarians)   were    really   Pai-i, i.e.,  Shans,  am    inclined   to
doubt. Their  centre  was  northeast  of   the   Shan area,  and  nearer
to  Ta-li.  They    were    also   called     'Black Ts'uan.'  According   to
the  Man-shu   (ch. 4), "the   Western  Ts'uan   are  the   White   Man,
the    Eastern  Ts'uan   are   the  Black   Man.'' The P'o  should  there-

fore   be    the     latter,   the    Eastern   Ts'uan,  who   originally  were
south,   rather    than    east,  of    the     former.  In   chapter 8   of   the
Man-shu,   six    words    (meaning,   City,  Bamboo,  Salt,  Earth,   to
Ask for, Sour)  are  given in   the   language  of   the  Eastern  Ts'uan;
only  one  of  these,  Salt394(chu-kuiw),   looks  at  all  like  Shan.  The
P'o,  as   distinct    from    the    Pai-i,   threw  in   their   lot    with    the
Mongols   from   the   first;   and,  like   the   Ts'uan,  Lolo  and   Ho-ni,
they   are   frequently    mentioned   as  recruits  in  the  local  Mongol
armies.

Extract    (ii).     Biographies   of   HSI-LI -CH'IEN-PU  and  AI-LU395
    ( Y.S., ch. 122).

Hsi-li-ch'ien-pu   was   a    man   of   T'ang-wu396    (Tangut)....
( Goes  on  expedition against   Russia, and wins the title  Bahadur ).

 

 

 

 

 

             THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA'S HISTORY                   65

In   chi-wei   year   (1259 A.D.),397    Shih    Tsu   invaded    the
south.  Hsi-li-ch'ien-pu   had   to find  and  furnish   the   commissariat
for  the  army. There was never  any lack   or  stoppage.  On  account
of  sickness  he  returned in a sedan chair  and  died at home,  aged
69. His son was Ai-lu.

Ai-lu  inherited  the  post  of  darugači   of  Ta-ming  Road.398
In the  5th  year of  chih-yüan (1268 A.D.), he   followed   the   Yunnan

expedition    to    the     various    tribes    of   Gold    Teeth.   Southern
barbarian   troops, ten    thousand   in   number, had   cut    the  P'iao-
tien399  road.  He   attacked    them   and  cut   off  over   a   thousand
heads.  This   so  frightened  the  various  tribes  that  they  submitted.

In   the   6th   year    (1269 A.D.),  he     again     entered     (the
region)  and   fixed   their  rents  and   land-tax.  He   pacified   twenty-
four    stockades,   including    Huo-pu-ma.400  He   got   seven   tame
elephants and returned.

In   the   7th   year   (1270 A.D.), he   was   transferred    to  be
darugači of  Chung-ch'ing   Road,401  with   the  combined   office  of
Controller of Ts'uan and P'o troops.

In  the  10th   year    (1273 A.D.),   the    p'ing-chang    ( Grand
Secretary), Sai-tien-ch'ih,  became   Governor  of   Yünnan   province.
He ordered Ai-lu to demarcate the  boundaries   of   Yung-ch'ang.402
The increase in cultivated fields was greatest here....

When  Prince  Hsiang-wu-êrh,403 at    the   head    of    various
generals,   invaded    Mien, Ai-lu   supplied   the   commissariat   and
rations.   There   was   never   any   lack  or  stoppage ....

In  the  25th    year   (1288 A.D.),  he    fell    ill    with    malaria
and died.

Comment.  The   Tangut,404 of   the   kingdom  of  Hsi-hsia  in
Kansu and Ordos, were a  Lolo-speaking Tibeto-Burman   people of
Buddhist culture, who arose about  the same  time  as  the   Burmans.
They    were    conquered,   unfortunately, not    by    Khubilai   but   by
Gengis, who was doing his best to  exterminate  them   at    the   time
of   his   death   in  1227. Ai-lu, an   able  and   faithful  servant  of  the
Mongols, also  believed  in  massacre. His service  was   largely    in
E. Yünann  and  Tongking, where  ( see n. 11 ), just before his  death

    

 

 

 

   66                                              G.H. Luce

in  1288,  he  "fought  38   battles   and  cut  off   innumerable   heads"
of   Lolo   and   Pai-i.  On   the    Burma   border,  during  1268-9,   he
opened  the  Nam  Kham  route:  Huo-pu-ma  of  the  text  is surely a
misprint for T'ien-pu-ma (n. 52).

Extract ( iii )     Biographies  of   SAI-TIEN-CH'IH,405  and   his  sons
  NA-SU-LA-TING406     and     HU-HSIN407 (ch. 125).

.... Lo-p'an   tien408   rebelled;  and    Sai-tien-ch'ih   went    on
expedition   there. He    wore    a   sorrowful   look, and  his  followers
asked him why. He said: "I  am  not  sad   at   going   out  on   expedi-
tion. I am  sad about  you  people  risking  your  lives  among    spear-
points   and   barbs  of  arrows, l est   unfortunately   and   quite   guilt-
lessly you may die. And  I   am  sad  also  for  fear  you   people  may
rob  or  plunder   ordinary   persons,  leaving   them   nothing   to  live
on; and  so  the  people  will  revolt,  with   the   result   that   we  shall
have to send another expedition against them."

The    army  halted at  Lo-p'an   city,   which    for    three   days
refused  to   submit. The  various  generals asked leave to   attack  it.
Sai-tien-ch'ih   would   not   allow   them.  He   sent   envoys   to  notify
(the city),   with    reasons. The     lord   of  Lo-p'an    said: " I  respect-
fully    accept   your   commands." Three   days    passed,   but   still it
did  not  submit. The  various  generals  were  all  eager  to fight ,and
asked    leave    to   advance  to     the    attack . Sai-tien-ch'ih   again
refused. Suddenly,  among  the generals  and   the  men, there  were
some  who  mounted  the  city-wall  and  were   proceeding  to attack.
Sai-tien-ch'ih   was  very   angry,  and   urgently   sounded   the metal
(gong)  and  stopped  them.He  summoned   the  wan-hu, and  loudly
blamed  him saying: "The  Son  of  Heaven  has  commanded me  to
pacify  and  comfort  Yünnan. He  has  never  commanded  me to kill
and  slaughter. Without    the   orders  of    your  commanding  officer,
to  take   it  upon   yourself   to   attack,  according   to  military  law is
punishable  with death." And   he  ordered   his   attendants   to  bind
him.  The  other   generals   kowtowed  and  begged  him  to  wait till
the day of the city's submission, and then take action.

 

 

 

 

 

                THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA'S HISTORY                   67

When  the  lord  of  Lo-p'an  heard   of  this,  he  said:  " Fancy
the  p'ing-chang  being  so  magnanimous  and  kind!  If  I  resist  his
orders, it  will   be   unlucky." So   he   took    his  kingdom and  came
out   and    submitted. The   officers   and   men   also  were  set  free
and not executed.

From  that  time   the  various  barbarians  of   the   southwest
with   one    accord    made   genuine   submission.   The   barbarian
chiefs , whenever   they   came  for   an   interview, would   as  a  rule
have    something   to    offer   as   a    present.  Sai-tien-ch'ih   would
distribute    them    all    as   gifts   to  his   attendants    and    officers.
Sometimes   he   would   pass   them   on   to  poor  people.  Not 'an
autumn   hair'409   would   he    take    for   himself. He   would   make
wine   and   food  and   reward   the   chieftains  for their  pains,  and
cut   out   clothes,  caps, socks   and   shoes, and   give  them  as   a
substitute   for   their  plant-clothes   and  grass-sandals. The   chiefs
were all grateful and glad.

Sai-tien-ch'ih    lived    in    Yünnan    for   six    years.   In    the
16th year  of  chih-yüan  (1279 A.D.), he  died   at  the   age   of   69.
The  common  people  in  the   streets   mourned  for  him.... He  had
five   sons.  The    eldest    was    Na-su-la-ting.   The   second    was
Ha-san.... The next was Hu-hsin….

NA-SU-LA-TING  advanced   in  his  official  career  to  be....
Senior    Comforter   (hsüan-wei-shih)   and    General  Commander
(tu-yüan-shuai) of Yün-nan Road.410

In   the   16th    year    of    chih-yüan    (1279 A.D.),  he    was
transferred   to   be   commander   of   Ta-li.  Taking    his   troops  he
reached   Gold  Teeth,  the P'u   and   P'iao, Ch'ü-la  and   Mien  king-
dom.411  He   summoned   and  pacified  300  barbarian  stockades,
registered 120, 200  households, fixed   rents  and   land-tax, set   up
post-houses   and   courier-service, and    stationed  garrison-troops.
On   his    return   he   brought   12   tame   elephants  and  submitted
them  at  Court. The   Emperor   issued   a  decree   rewarding    him
with  50  taels  of  gold, two  suits  of  clothes  with  lining,  and   silver
in     appropriate   quantities    to   reward     the   officers   under   his
banner.

 

 

 

 

68                                              G.H. Luce

It   happened  that   his   father, Shan-ssǔ-ting,412  died . The
ministers   of    Yünnan    province,  in   dealing    with    the   various
barbarians, had  lost  his  knack   of   soothing  and   calming   them.
Shih   Tsu    was    anxious    about    this. The   ministers   near  the
throne recommended Na-su-la-ting....

In   the   29th   year  ( 1292 A.D. )   he   fell   ill   and   died ....
HU-HSIN

           ….. In   the  5th   year   of   ta-tê    ( 1301 A.D. ),  the   lord   of

Mien   kingdom,  relying  on  the  strength of  his  defences, refused
to   submit.  Hu-hsin   sent   persons   to   notify   him   saying: "I  am
a  son  of  the old Sai-tien-ch'ih, the p'ing-chang  (Grand Secretary).
I  am  only  f ollowing   the   instructions  of  my  predecessor. If   any
officials   in  charge  in   your country act  improperly, they  must   all
be    changed    for   your   own   sakes." When   the   lord   of   Mien
kingdom   heard   this, he   thereupon   came  along with  the  envoy
and   offered  as  tribute  one   white  elephant. Moreover   he   said:
"This   (sort of)   elephant, from   of   old   till   now, has   never  been
had. Only   now   the  sacred   virtue  (of the  Emperor)  has  caused
it    to    appear. I    venture    (to   submit it)    as    a   kind   of   local
product." When it was submitted at  Court, the  Emperor  bestowed
on  the  lord  of   Mien  kingdom  the  title  of  Heir   to  the  Throne....

[Hu-hsin    died    in    the   1st    month    (Jan. 31st-Mar.1st),  1310.]
Comment.  This    passage    is     of    interest   because   it  shows
the methods of a firm pacifist  living  in   a   grim   age   of   war  and
massacre. Fo r  the  six   years (1274-79)of Sayyid  Äjäll's  governor-
ship, this "Sun  of  the  Faith"   (Islam)   kept  Yünnan   and    its   fron-
tiers  peaceful  and  quiet, with  gain rather  than  loss  to   Khubilai's
prestige.

For  his  eldest   son, Nâśir  ed-Dîn, see  n. 62, and  the  fuller
and  better-dated  account   in   the  text. This  firs t Mongol  invasion
of  Burma  occurred  in 1277-78, but   the   report   only  reached the
capital  in  1279. The  dating  and   recording   of  events  in  the  bio-
graphical chapters  is  often  not  as careful  as  in  the pên-chi.Thus,
the  sending of the  white  elephant  is  here  dated   1301, that  is, it

 

 

 

 

 

                 THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA'S HISTORY                      69

was  done  after the siege of Myinzaing. The pên-chi  (n. 263) dates
it  May  1st, 1300. It  was  a  supreme  effort   to   avert  the   coming
invasion;  and   the  "bestowing  on   the   lord  of  Mien  kingdom  of
the   title    Heir  to    the   Throne" (n. 262, June  22nd  1300)   refers,
of course, to Kumārakassapa, not to Assaṇkhayā.

Extract (iv).    Biography   of    YEH-HAN-TI-CHIN   413    (ch.  133).

           Yeh-han-ti-chin was a Hsia-la-lu414 man ....

In  the 21st year (1284 A.D.)  he,  and the  yu-ch'êng   (Senior
Assistant-Governor)   T'ai-pu,415  and   Prince   Hsiang-wu-ta-êrh,416
by   different   routes  invaded Mien. He  constructed   boats   on   the

two   rivers A-hsi  and A-ho,417 as  many as 200 craft. He  advanced
and     attacked   Chiang-t'ou  ('Riverhead') city,418  and  captured   it.
He  took  prisoner 10,000  of  its  keenest  soldiers. He  ordered  the
General   Commander  (tu-yüan-shuai),  Lai  Shih-an,419 to garrison
it.   Moreover  he  mapped  the  physical    features  of  the  land, and
sent  messengers  to  go to  the  Gate  of  the    Court  and  furnish  a
report on the proper way to attack and garrison it.

Previously, after   the   conquest  of   Chiang-t'ou  city,  he  had
sent     Hei-ti-êrh    and    Yang   Lin,420 etc., to   notify   (the   king   of)
Mien   and    cause   him  to  submit. There   was   no   reply.  But   the
various    rebel     southern    barbarians  were   relying   on  T'ai-kung
city   of    the  Chien-tu421 in   order   to  resist  our main  army.  Again
he sent Buddhist monks  to  warn them  of  the  consequences,  good
or    evil,   of   their  actions, but    they    were  murdered.   Thereupon
he   directed   his  army  to  advance   both   by  water  and   land,and
captured   (the city)   by    storm.   Twelve     walled     towns    of     the
Chien-tu,  Gold  Teeth,  etc., all  submitted. He  ordered  the  General
Commander   Ho-tai,  and    the   wan-hu Pu-tu-man,422 etc., to   take
5,000 troops and garrison them.

In  the  28th   year  (1291 A.D.), he   was    transferred    to   be
Assistant  Delegate of    the  provincial    War  Office    of   Ssŭch'uan,
where he died ....

Comment.   For    Yagan-těgin,  see n. 76    and   the  text. He
was  a   prince   (těgin)  of    the   Hsia-la-lu  or   Qarluq,423 the   chief

 

 

 

 

70                                             G.H. Luce

tribe  of  the  Western   Turks    who   lived    originally , west  of   the
Uigurs, in   the   Tarbagatai   mountains,   east    of   Lake   Balkash.

This  main   invasion  of   Burma  was in  the cold  season  of
1283-84. The   general   left  to  garrison Chiang-t'ou ( Kaungzin ) is
here called   Lai Shih-an, in   the   Section on Mien  Hsuan  Shih-an,
in Huber's text Yuan Shih-an.424

Extract (v).      Biography    of    CHANG-WAN-CHIA-NU   and   son

                        PAO-T'UNG425  ( Y.S., ch. 165 ).

In   the  20th   year  (1283 A.D.),  Chang-wan-chia-nu   accom-
panied  the  expedition  to  Mien   and  died fighting. The   Prince   of
Yünnan    ordered    his    son,  Pao-t'ung,  to   lead   his   troops   and
accompany   the   expedition.  He   entered   T'ai-kung city.426  As   a
reward  for  his  services, he  inherited  the post of Assistant General
Commander   (fu-tu-yüan-shuai).   Again     he     accompanied    the
expedition  to   Shan-tan   of   Kan-chou,427 and  also  died fighting....

Extract ( vi ).    Biography   of    YEH-LÜ-T'U-HUA    and    his   great-
grandson   MANG-KU-TAI428    ( Y.S., ch. 149 ).

Yeh-lü-t'u-hua      was      a     Ch'i-tan 429    man….   His    son     Chu-

Ko430  succeeded   him....  His  son Pao T'ung 431succeeded  him….

Mang-ku-tai   was   son  of  Pao-t'ung. In   the   time   of  Shih  Tsu  he

was  granted    the    Gold  Tally   and    inherited  his  father's  rank….

On  account  of  his  services  he  was  promoted  wan-hu. He  accom-
panied  the  expedition  against  Lo-pi  tien.432  On  reaching  Yunnan,
he  was  ordered  by  the  Emperor  to  take his force and enter  Mien,
and   go  and  meet   the   Prince  of  Yünnan. The   Gold  Teeth,  Pai-i
('White Clothes'),   Ta-pên,433     and     other     southern    barbarians
repeatedly   ambushed  him   at   vital   strategic   points,  and   lay   in
wait   for   him. Mang-ku-tai   vigorously   attacked   and   broke   them.
After   more  than    ten   fights    altogether,  he   reached    the    Mien
border and opened  the  Gold  Teeth  Road. He  received  the  Prince,
and   So   returned. He   was   promoted   to   be    Assistant  General
Commander. He  accompanied   Prince  A-t'ai433 on   his   expedition
against    Chiao-chih....  Again     he   accompanied    the    Prince    of
Yünnan   in   attacking  Lo-pi tien  and  conquered  it.

 

Burma1

 

 

 

 

 

                    THE EARLY SYĀM  IN BURMA'S HISTORY                      71

             In  the  29th  year  ( 1292 A.D. )  he  entered   the  Presence….

(In 1294 A.D.) he   was   promoted  to  be  Senior  Comforter  (hsùan-
wei-shih)  
and  General  Commander  of  Ta-li,  Gold  Teeth and other

places….

Comment.   Yeh-lü    was   the   royal    clan   of    the   Ch'i-tan
Tartars   ( Khitâi,  Cathay ).435   They    lived   originally   in   S.E.  Mon-
golia, and spoke  a  palatalized   Mongol    tongue.  They    conquered
S.  Manchuria     (Liao-tung)     and     N. China,   founding    the    Liao
dynasty    (fl. 907-1123).  Driven    thence     by     the    Jucen   Tungus,
some  of   them  founded   a   new  empire  of  the  Qarākhitâi   ('Black
Khitai')   in   Turkestan, which    lasted   till    it     was    conquered    by
Gengis in 1211.

The   first  Lo-pi tien    campaign   mentioned   in   this   extract
perhaps  took  place in 1287-88, when Prince Äsän Tämür, grandson
of    Khubilai  (see n. 108), fought    his   way   to  Pagan, " losing over
7000   men   of    his   army. "Mang-ku-tai,  I    take   it,  was   sent    to
extricate    him.  The   Mang-ku-tai   of    this   extract   is  clearly    the
Mêng-ku-tai    of    Extract VII,  where     the   invasion    of    Lo-pi tien
appears   to    fall   in    or   after   1284. It   precedes   Prince   A-t'ai's

expedition to Tongking: I am not sure of the date of this.

Extract (vii). Biography of PU-LU-HO-TA436 ( Y.S., ch. 132).

Pu-lu-ho-ta   was   a   Mongol   of   the  Hung-chi-la437 clan….

In  the  21st  year ( 1284 A.D. ) he  was ordered to  command
a  thousand  Mongol  and T'an-ma-ch'ih438 troops   and   accompany
the  expedition  against  the  southern  barbarians of Gold Teeth.  He
pacified    them. When   the   General   Commander  (tu-yüan-shuai)
Mêng-ku-tai439  invaded   Lo-pi tien,  Pu-lu-ho-ta  led guerilla  troops

and   went   ahead.The   water   in   the river  suddenly rose  in   flood.
He   led   his   men   swimming  through   the water  and  forded  it. At
a  point   300  yards  from   the   city-wall,  he   encamped. He stayed
there  for  seven  days.When   the whole  army  assembled under the
walls  of   the city, and  advanced  to   attack  it,  Pu-lu-ho-ta  was  the
first   to   mount   the   walls   and  capture  the  city; whereupon  there
was a massacre.

 

 

 

 

72                                               G.H. Luce

Again he accompanied  the expedition against Pa-pai-hsi-fu
kingdom, and  reached  Ch'ê-li.440 Ch'ê-li   is   the  residence  of the
chieftain.   Prince  K'uo-k'uo441  ordered   Pu-lu-ho-ta   to   lead  300
guerilla cavalry   and  to   go   and  summon   them   to   submit  They
refused ; so  he  made   his  troops  advance  and  attack   them.The
tu-chên-fu Hou Chêng442 was   killed.  Pu-lu-ho-ta   demolished   the
woodwork  of   their   northern  gate;  whereupon   he   entered   their
stockade. Their  land  was  wholly pacified. The  emperor  bestowed
on  him  the  Gold  Tiger   Tally  and  appointed   him 'Great  General
cherishing  the  Far,' and  darugaĉi of  the  wan-hu  office of  Yünnan.
When  he  died, his  son   Mang-ku-pu-hua443 inherited   his  post....

Comment.  Pu-lu-ho-ta   belonged  to   the   Hung-chi-la,  i.e.,
Qongirat  or   Ongirat444  tribe, here   described   as   Mongol.  They

lived  on    the  east  bank  of  the   Argun   River  in  the  northeast of
Mongolia, west of the Khingan mountains.

The   first   expedition   against   Pa-pai-hsi-fu  (n. 179)   was
in  1292-3,  under    Mängü   Türümish.  Great   Ch'ê-li    must   have
submitted  before the  end   of  1296, when a governorship  was set
up   there   ( n. 185 ). I   do   not   know   which   of   the   expeditions
was commanded by Prince K'uo-k'uo.

Extract ( viii ).         Section    on    the     ARMY.   "Army regulations"
   ( ping-chih —Y.S., ch. 98 ).

             15 th   year    ( 1278 A.D. ) ….  Yünnan    province   reported:

"Of  the  old  Mongol  troops  who  were  stationed   as  colonists  in
Yünnan,  very   few   are   left.  So    we  have  to  take   gradually, as
they  reach  manhood, young   recruits, a   lot   of timid  and nervous
soldiers (?),  and   prepare    them   for  service   abroad. Yünnan  is
vast  and  far, and   there   are lots  of  places  still   unsubdued. The
use  of   troops  i s certainly  necessary. We  have  already  enlisted
10,000 Ts'uan    and   P'o445 men   as   soldiers. And  we  are  conti-
nually  taking  newly-submitted   Lo-lo, Ho-ni446 and  other   persons,
and  also  causing  them  to   fill  gaps in  our  army. But  these  men
are  not  like   those   of   Central  China. If  they   go  on   expedition
to  other  regions, they    are   sure to desert and hide. It  would    be

 

 

 

 

                  THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA'S HISTORY                   73

best  to  order  them  to  be  employed  only  against  places not  yet
subdued   in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  the  places  where
each of them live...."

Comment. Compare  the entry in the pên-chi,447 under date
April   26th,  1278: "The   Emperor    issued    orders   that   in   view
of  the  fact  that  the  border-lands  of   Yünnan   are   vast   and   far;
and  that  there  are  still  many  who  have   not   yet   submitted,  he
authorized  the  sending  of 10,000  men  on   punitive   expeditions."

Extract (ix).       Section    on    the      ARMY.     "Frontier    Defence"
( chên-shu - Y.S., ch. 99 ).

In   the   21 st   year   (1284     A.D.)  ....   10 th   month   (Nov.
9th-Dec.7th). Reinforcements   were   sent  to  garrison  and   guard
Gold  Teeth  kingdom. It  was   because  the  people  of  that  region
are  stubborn  and  truculent. Formerly  Chinese  troops  and   newly
submitted   troops, 3000   men,  were  the  frontier  guards. Now,  in
addition,  the   Empero r moved  T'an-ma-ch'ih  and  Mongol  troops,
2000  men, and  ordered  Yo-ha-hai448 to  take  command  of  them
and go there....

Comment.  Compare   the   entry  in  the  pên-chi,449   under
date   November   12th,  1284: "Ssŭǔch'uan   province reported that
there  were  still  many  people  left   amongst  the  Gold  Teeth  who
had    not    yet    submitted. The    Emperor   ordered   Yao-la-hai to
lead 2000 T'an-ma-ch'ih.troops to punish them."

Extract (x). Biography of CH'I EH-LI EH450 (Y.S. ch. 133).

Ch'ieh-lieh    was    a   man   of   the   western   regions .  His
family   lived   at  T'ai-yüan.451  He   started   as  an   official   in   the
translation   department  of  the  central   government.  He   followed
the    p'ing-chang-chêng-shih    (Grand     Secretary)   Sai-tien-ch'ih,
when he was Governor of ( Ssǔ-) ch'uan and Shên (-hsi ).

In   the   12th. year   of  chih-yüan  ( 1275   A.D. ),   when  the
provincial   administration   of   Yünnan  was  set   up,  he  was given
a  temporary  post   in   the   secretariat.  The   genuine   submission
of  the  chiefs  of  the  various  southern  barbarians   of   the   Caves
was largely owed to the services of Ch'ieh-lieh.

 

 

 

 

74                                             G.H. Luce

In  the  15th  year  (1277  A.D.),  he  was  given  the  special
task   of   governing  Ta-li. It   happened   that  the  people  of   Mien
made  a   raid   across  the   frontier. Ch'ieh-lieh  at  once   supplied
the  army  with  weapons  of  war, and  punished  and  pacified  (the
invaders). He  was  granted  appointment  as   Second    Secretary
to the Left and Right Offices of the provincial Boards.

In   the  18th   year  (1281  A.D.),  the   p'ing-chang   (Grand
Secretary),   Na-su-la-ting,   sent   him   to   the   imperial   Gate   to
memorialize   the  Throne   about   frontier   affairs. Shih  Tsu  liked
his   quickness  and  discrimination, his  skill  and  experience.  He
bestowed  on  him  the  Tiger  Tally, and  granted him  appointment
•as darugači  of   the  Comfortership  (hsüan-fu-ssǔ)  of   Chên-hsi,
Mien  (for P'ing-mien ),  Lu-ch'uan   and   other  Roads,452  with the
combined   office   of   kuan-chün-chao-t'ao-shih453   ('disciplinary-
officer directing the army' ).

The  various  posting-stations  of  Ch'êng-tu  and   Wu-mêng454
had    their    communications   blocked   and   cut    off.   Ch'ieh-lieh

bought  horses  and  supplied  couriers, to  the  great   convenience
of  travellers. Just  at  this  moment  he  was  summoned  to  go   up
to the capital, and questioned about the  arrangements   necessary
for  the  invasion  of  Mien. His  replies  made  in  audience   suited
the  Emperor,  who  bestowed  on  him  silks  and  a  coat  of   mail
with feather.

When  Prince Hsiang-wu-ta-êrh  and   the yu-ch’êng (Senior
Assistant-Governor ) T'ai-pu   invaded   Mien,  they ordered Ch'-ieh-
lieh  to  take  war-boats  and   lead  the  way. They captured Chiang-
t'ou ( ' Riverhead ' ) city, and led their army back home.

Again,    he    followed   the   Prince  of   Yünnan    when    he
entered   Mien. He  commanded 3000 soldiers and encamped and
guarded   P'iao   kingdom.455  He  fixed  the  strategy  of   the   cam-
paign, and   summoned  and  encouraged the  adherents   (of  Mien
to return). From   this   time  those   who  returned   to   their   normal
occupations were many.

Afterwards   he   entered    the    Presence,  and    Shih   Tsu
comforted  and  rewarded    him, and   enquired al l about Mien king-

 

 

 

 

                THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA'S HISTORY                  75

 

dom. He  was selected to  receive the  title Chêng-i-ta-fu ('Upright
Counsellor') and  General  Secretary  to  the  provincial administra-
tion  of  Mien-chung456  ('Central  Burma'), wearing   at   the   waist
the   Gold   Tally. The   Emperor   made   proclamation    to    Mien,
publishing  and  making  known  his  own  majesty  and virtue. The
king  of  Mien  bowed  down his   forehead   to   the   ground,   and
pronounced    his    thanks  (for  the  favour  shown  him).  He   sent
his  son  and  heir, Hsin-ho-pa-ti, to  enter  the  Court   with   tribute.

Ch'ieh-lieh   was  promoted   t'ung-fêng-ta-fu457  and  ts'an-
chih-chêng-shih  (State  Counsellor)  to  the  provincial administra-

tion  of  the  various  Roads  of  Yünnan. He  rose  to  be  tzǔ-shan-
ta-.fu
458   ('Helper  of  the  good') and tso-ch'êng (Junior Assistant-

Governor)  of  the  provincial  administration  of  the various Roads
of Yünnan.

In    the   4th    year    of ta-tê    (1300   A.D.), he   fell  ill  and

died.

Comment. Fo  r Ch'ieh-lieh   (the   Käräit),  see   notes  99,
234, and   the   text. Sayyid  Äjäll  (Sai-tien-ch'ih)  was   in   charge
in  Shensi  and  Ssù-ch'uan  from  1264   to  1274.   The   "Caves"
were   in   S.E.  Yünnan, on   the   Chiao-chih   (Tongking)   border.
Mien's  raid  across  the  frontier  really  took   place   in   the  14th
year,    April-May,  1277     (see   n. 58   and    the   text).    As    for
Wu-mêng,  the  Senior  Comfortership   (hsüan-wei-ssû) of Wu-sa
and  Wu-mêng  is  described  in  the   Geographical  Section (Y.S.
ch.  61)   as   " 750  li N.E.   of    Chung-ch'ing "   (Yün-nan Fu).   In

the  Army   Section   (ch.  100)   Wu-mêng  is  called "the throat of
Yunnan. " It   lay , I    expect,  in    the    Independent   Lolo   country,
east  and  west  of  which  ran  the  main  roads  from   Ssǔ-ch'uan
(Ch'êng-tu).

For   the   campaign   of   Prince  Sängqüdär  (n.  77)   and
T'ai-pu  (n.  75),  in   1283-84,  see    the     text.  The    "Prince    of
Yunnan"   is    Äsän   Tämür    (n. 108), whose   campaign, in 1287,
led  to  the  capture  of  Pagan. The   Emperor's   proclamation   to
Mien, on  the   first   sending  of  Singhapati  to   Peking,  is  dated
March   20th, 1297 (n. 231). Its    reading     at    Pagan   by  Chiao

 

 

 

 

76                                             G.H. Luce

Hua-ti  (n. 233) — was  Ch'ieh-lieh   also  present? — took   place
later  in  the same  year; and Klawcwā's dethronement,  according
to  Burmese  sources  ( n. 243), about  the  end  of  the year  (13th
waxing  of   Pyatho).  Singhapati's   second   mission   to    Peking
(n. 248)  is   dated   April 13th, 1299; the  murder  of  him  and  his
father (n. 250) May 10th, 1299.

Extract (xi).       Biography   of   CHIA-LU-NA-TA-SSǓ^   (Y.S. ch.
134 ).

Chia-lu-na-ta-ssǔ  was  a  Wei-wu-êrh460 ( Uigur ) man.   He
was  well-versed  in  the  religions  of  India  and  the languages  of
various  kingdoms. He was  a  Reader  in  the Han-lin  Academy....

( Summoned to Court by the Emperor Shih Tsu, he  studies
under the Hsi-fan, i.e., Tibetan, Râjaguru ('Phags-pa?), and   within
one  year  masters  Tibetan. He   then  translates  the   Indian   and
Tibetan sūtras and shāstras into Uigur.)

A  small  kingdom  of the south-west,  Hsing-ha-la-ti-wei,461
with  more  than  twenty  tribes, came  to   Court.  Chia-lu-na-ta-ssǔ,

in  the  presence  of  the  Emperor, presented  and  read  out   their
memorials to the Throne. The  various  kingdoms  were  awestruck
and submitted.

The  Court   was  deliberating  on   the   starting   of   military
operations  to  punish   Hsien  kingdom, Lo-hu, Ma-pa-êrh, Chü-lan,
Su-mu-tu-la,462  and  other  kingdoms. Chia-lu-na-ta-ssǔ  memorial-
ized saying : "These  are  all unimportant  petty  kingdoms. Even  if
we  get  them, what  is   the   profit?  To   start   military   operations
merely  destroys   human  lives. "Would   it  not  be  better  to   send
envoys   to   notify   them  of   the   results, good   or   bad   (of   their
actions ) ? If  they  fail  to  submit, it   will  not  be  too  late  to  attack
them." The  Emperor  accepted  his  words, and ordered  Yo-la-yeh-
nu-t'ieh-mieh463 and others to  proceed on missions (to these coun-
tries). Over twenty kingdoms submitted.

In   the  24th   year  of   chih-yüan   (1287 A.D.)....  (he   was
appointed  Reader  in  the  Han-lin Academy,  and  sent  to  live   in
the  palace  of  Ch'êng  Tsung,464 then  heir-apparent) "and   cause
him  to   be  moderate  in drinking and to keep the precepts,  When

 

 

 

 

 

                THE EARLY SYĀM  IN BURMA'S HISTORY                     77

Ch'êng  Tsung  came  to   the  Throne  (in  1294  A.D.), "he  remem-
bered  his loyalty,... pitied  his  old  age, and  gave  orders  allowing
him   to   enter   the   Palace-grounds   riding   in  a  cart. When  Jên
Tsung465  came  to  the  Throne"  (in 1311 A.D.), and   there  was  a
general    discharge of superfluous officials, " only Chia-lu-na-ta-ssǔ

held  his  post as Minister of Instruction,466 as before….

"The  Emperor  bestowed on him a jade saddle. In the same
year, 8th month, he died. "

Extract (xii). Biography of LIU CHÊNG467 (Y.S., ch. 176).

. . . . In  the  1st  year  of  ta-tê  ( 1297 A.D. ) Liu  Chêng  was

transferred  to  be Secretary of  the War Office (t’ung-ch'ien-shu-mi-
yuan-shih
).468 Soon  after, he   was  sent out as tso-ch'êng  (Junior

Assistant-Governor)   of    the   provincial   government   of    Yunnan.
The   yu-ch'êng    (Senior   Assistant-Governor),   Mang-wu-t'u-lu-mi-
shih,469    requested   leave  to  make  an  expedition  against  Mien.
(Liu) regarded  it  as  not  possible. Suddenly  (came  orders  for)  a
general  levy. Once  more, with   the  utmost  emphasis, he declared
that it was impossible. The  Emperor did  not agree. The  campaign
finally proved a failure ….

Comment.  For  Mängü  Türümish, see  n. 194. It  was   in the
8th  month  of  1299 ( see  Huber's text, p. 673-4 )   that  Kumârakas-
sapa escaped to Yünnan, and Mängü Türümish espoused his cause.
See the text.

Extract (xiii).   Biography of HA-LA-TAI470 (Y.S., ch. 132).

Ha-la-tai was of the Ha-lu471 clan ....

In  the  5th  year  of  ta-tê (1301 A.D.) he was commanded to
enter the Presence, and selected for appointment as tzǔ-tê-ta-fu472
("great  man  relying  on  virtue")  and  yu-ch'êng  (Senior  Assistant-

Governor)  of  Yünnan   province   (with orders), to   accompany   Liu
Shên473 on expedition against Pa-pai-hsi-fu474 kingdom.

In   the   1st   year   of   chih-shun    (1330 A.D. — a mistake),
Sung-lung-chi475   and   others   rebelled. He    lost    his   army   and
returned.  (Liu)   Shên   was   executed.  Ha-la-tai   also   was   found
guilty and dismissed.

 

 

 

 

78                                                G.H. Luce

In   the  11th   year   (of   ta-tê? 1307  A.D. ),  he   fell   ill   and
died at Ju-chou476 ….

In   the  1st year  of  huang-ch'ing  (1312 A.D.), the  Emperor
conferred on him the posthumous titles of....

Comment. For  Ha-la-tai  (Qaratai), see  notes  299,307. He
was  a  Qarluq   (Ha-lu = Ha-la-lu = Hsia-la-lu,etc.). He   appears   to
have   been   vindicated   after   his   death. The   date, 1st   year   of
chih-shun  (1330 A.D.), is  an   obvious   mistake. Sung   Lung-chi's
rebellion  is  first  mentioned  in  the  pên-chi  under date  June 30 th,
1301:477 "The  native  official  of   Yünnan, Sung  Lung-chi,  rebelled.
At  this  time  Liu  Shên  was  leading  his  army  from  Shun-yüan478
to  enter   Yünnan. The   yu-ch'êng   (Senior Assistant-Governor)   of

Yünnan,  Yüeh Hu-nan,479   was  moving  the   population   to   supply
the  commissariat. Sung  Lung-chi   too advantage of this to deceive
his  people  saying, 'The  government  army's  levying  and despatch-
ing   of  you   people, means   that   they   will   cut   off  all   your   hair
and  brand  your  faces. They  will  make  you  soldiers, and  you  will
die   yourselves, either   on   the   march  or   on   the   battlefield.'  All
were  misled  by  his words  and  so rebelled." Under date  February
13th,  1304,480  we  read: "In  view  of  the  fact  that  the  sub-prefect
and  Acting  Comforter  of  Shun-yüan  of  Yunnan, Sung A-chung,481
had  captured  alive  his  father's  younger  brother, (Sung)   Lung-chi,

and  come  and  surrendered  him, the Emperor specially  promoted
him  in  office  and  bestowed  on  him  a suit of clothes." And further
rewards, under date  June 21st, 1304,482 were  given  to  the higher
officials,   from    Prince    T'o-t'o-i-chi-li483    downwards,  "for    their
merits in pacifying Sung Lung-chi. "

Extract ( xiv ).      Biography   of    CH'ÊN T'IEN-HSIANG,   younger
  brother  of  CH'ÊN HU484   ( Y.S., ch. 168 ).

.... In  the  6th  year  of ta-tê   (1302 A.D.),  Ch'ên T'ien-hsiang
was  promoted  hsing-t'ai  (Viceroy?)  of  Honan  and  President   of
the  Censorate  (yü-shih-chung-ch'êng)A485  He  memorialized  the
Emperor  on  the  subject  of   the  expedition  to  the  southwest  bar-
barians, saying :

 

 

 

 

 

 

               THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA'S HISTORY                    79

"There  are  wars  which  cannot  possibly  be stopped.There
are  also  wars  which  can  be stopped, and are not stopped. If  only
we  can  stop  them, and  in  fact  do stop them, we can maintain our
military   strength   for   ever. To   make   military    preparations    for
use in wars which cannot possibly be  stopped, this  may  be  called
good  war  strategy. Last   year  the   provincial   yu-ch'êng   (Senior
Assistant-Governor),   Liu Shên,   went   on   a    distant    expedition
against   Pa-pai-hsi-fu. This   was   a  war   which  could  have  been
stopped, and  was  not  stopped. It  is  a  small country in the frontier-
wilds, far  away  in  the  southwest   of   Yunnan. And   it   is    several
thousand  li  (in area). It  is  a  mean  rustic  place, of  no   use   what-
ever. The  people  are  all  obstinate, stupid  and  ignorant. If  we get
the   land, it  can  hardly  be  counted  as  an  asset. If  we  fail  to get
it, it can hardly be regarded as a loss.

"Liu Shên  cheated  his  superiors  and  deceived   his   subor-
dinates. He  led  troops  only  to  slaughter  them. On his way through
Pa-fan,486 he  gave  free  rein  to  his  perversity  and  licentiousness.
Relying  on  his   majesty  and   strength, he  cruelly   oppressed   the
inhabitants. While   he   was   still  on  the  road, rebellion  broke   out.
Everywhere  they  all  revolted. When  he  was  unable   to   suppress
the  rebellion, he  himself  in  turn   was   suppressed   by   the   rebel
masses. In  the  army  there  was  shortage  of  rations. The men had
to   eat   each   other. He   was   at  his  wits'  end, all  in  a  flurry  and
dither ; so  he  retreated  and  fled. The  local   troops   pursued   and
attacked, resulting  in  a   great  defeat. (Liu) Shên   abandoned    his
men  and  fled. He  barely  escaped  himself. Of  the  army  nine  men
out   of   ten   perished. Over  a  thousand  li  of   territory   was   aban-
doned.

"The  Court  is  now  once  more  despatching various armies
of   the  four  provinces  of   Shensi,  Honan,  Kiangsi   and   Hukuang,
and   has   made   Liu Êrh-pa487   the   commander-in-chief, with  the
intention    of    recovering     the   revolted    territory.  In   Hupeh  and
Hunan    there   has    been  a  big  levy  of  adult   male   labourers to
transport   army-rations   for   delivery   at   Po-chou.488   The  regular
labourers, together   with   those   who   carry   on   their   backs  their
own rations, are estimated at over 200,000 altogether .... "

 

 

 

 

 80                                               G.H. Luce

(The   writer   mentions   the   injury  to   farming; the   risk   of
the    rations   not    arriving    at    their   destination;  the   difficulties
of   the   terrain-steep   mountains, dense    forest,  thorny    bamboo,
constant danger of ambush, malaria and famine).

"Moreover, since   we   started   expeditions  against  Japan
("Kingdom of Dwarfs"), Chan-ch'êng (Champa), Chiao-chih
(Tongking),  Chao-wa489    (Java),  and    Mien    kingdom   (Burma),
down  to  the  present  day, nearly  30  years  have  passed; and we
have  not  seen  the  gain  of  a  foot  of  territory, or  a single person
added  to  those  subject  to  China. And   when   one   reckons   the
money  and  wealth  wasted, and  the  number  of  soldiers  killed or
wounded — alas, how can they be counted!

"Last  year  there   was  the   western   expedition. And  now
there  is   this   one   starting. Here  again, what   is   the   difference
between  them? The  mirror-warning  of   the  past   is   not   far   off;
nor is it difficult to see.

"Our   troops   are   weary, our   people  disturbed. They see
as  yet  no  date  for  resting. (Liu)  Shên alone  is  the one man who
is  the  cause  of  this  disaster. Again, one  hears  that   the  people
of  Pa-fan-lo  kingdom  have  already  been   troubled   and   injured
by  the  army  of  the  western   expedition. They   have   abandoned
their   occupations   for   a   livelihood, run   away   in   a   body,  and
rebelled. Their   grievance   against  (Liu)  Shên  has   entered   into
their  bones  and  marrow. They  all want  to  get his flesh and divide
and  eat  it. They   all  hate  him. And   Heaven's   Will   also   abhors
him. The   (Emperor's)  duty, above,  is  just   to   bear   the   Will   of
Heaven; below, it  is  to comply  with  the hearts  of men; to be quick
and  correct  the  crimes  of  (Liu) Shên; and, next, to  send  down  a
clear imperial edict.... "

There was no reply ( from the Emperor ).

Comment. Ch'ên T'ien-hsiang's   memorial, though  marked
by  the  usual  Chinese contempt for the ' Southwest barbarians, ' is
a  fitting  comment  on  the  futility  of  all  these  Mongol wars. And if
they  did  small  good  to  the  Mongols, they  were disastrous to the
victims   of  their aggression. They   ruined  the    Lolo-Dai kingdom

 

 

 

 

                   THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA'S HISTORY                     81

of  Nan-chao. They  ruined  the  Burmese  kingdom of Pagan. They
nearly  stitled  the  Thai   kingdoms   of   Chieng   Mai, etc., in   their
cradles.  And    they    left   a   bad   tradition   of   aggression    and
insecurity.

"The   western   expedition"  apparently  means  Liu Shên's
campaign.

Extract (xv).        Section    on    the    ARMY. "Frontier     Defence”
                            (chên-shu-Y.S.,ch.99).
            4th    year    of    chih-ta  of  Wu  Tsung,490 12th month  (Jan.
9th-Feb. 7th, 1312).  Yünnan    Pa-pai-hsi-fu,   Great     and     Little
Ch'ê-li,491  etc., were  doing  mischief. The  Emperor    (wanted  to)
transfer Mongol and Chinese troops of  Ssǔch'uan  province, 4000
men, and   ordered  the  wan-hu,  Nang-chia-tai,492 to   take   them
under  his  command, and  go  to  Yünnan  on  garrison  and guard-
duty....      (Ssǔch'uan    province    protests   against   the   transfer)
"We request you to sympathize with us and  suspend  the   service;
and  in  the  6th  year  (1313 A.D.)  to  transfer  thither   2000   men
from within the army." The Emperor approved.

Extract ( xvi ).   Section on MIEN493 ( Burma-Y.S., ch. 210 ).

Mien   kingdom   forms   (part   of)  the   south-western   bar-
barians. We   do  not  know  what  tribe. Its  land borders  on   Ta-li,
and  so  is  not  far  distant  from Ch'êng-tu We do not know,  more-
over, how  many  li  square  the  country is. The people have  cities
with  inner  and  outer  walls, and  houses  and huts to live in.  They
have  elephants  and  horses  to  ride, and  boats and rafts to  ford
water  with. For  their  written  characters submitted  to  the Throne,
they  used  gold  leaf  to  write on. Next they used paper,  and  next
they  used  the  leaf  of  the  areca-nut;494   for   they   were  copied,
translated, and then sent.

In    the   8th     year  of   the  chih-yüan  period of Shih Tsu
(1271 A.D.), the office  of  the  Senior  Comforter (hsüan-wei-ssü)
and  General  Commander   (tu-yüan-shuai)  of  Ta-li,  Shan-shan

and  other  Roads, sent  Ch'i-tai-t'o-yin  and  others  as  envoys  to
Mien    kingdom, to    summon  its  king  to  submit to China. In the

 

 

 

 

82                                           G.H. Luce

4th   month   (May 11th-June 8th)   Ch'i-tai-t'o-yin  and   the   others
brought  back  with  them  the  envoy  Chieh-po, and   made   their
report.

In  the 10th  year,2nd  month (Feb. 19th-March  20th, 1273),
K'an-ma-la-shih-li, Ch'i-tai-t'o-yin and others were sent as   ambas-
sadors  to  the  kingdom, bearing  an imperial letter notifying it,  as
follows : "Recently the office of the Senior Comforter and  General
Commander  of Ta-li, Shan-shan  and  other Roads,   sent  Ch'i-tai-
t'o-yin to escort Your kingdom's envoy, Chieh-po,495 to the  capital.
He says, moreover, that on arrival at  Your  kingdom  he  only  saw
the  ministers, but  never  saw Your  Majesty. Again, (your   envoy )
desired  to  see  the Body-relic of my great kingdom. Having  com-
passion on comers from afar, I  caused  the coming envoy to have
an audience and see me, and I  ordered that  he  be  permitted  to
behold  the  Relic. Furthermore  I  enquired  into   the   purpose  of
his  coming, and  so  learnt  that  Your  Majesty entertains the idea
of   submitting  to   China. Although   Your   kingdom  is  far, I  have
but  one  merciful  look  for  you  all. Now  again  I send K'an-ma-la-
shih-li, and  the  Senior  Secretary   of   the   Board   of   Rites,  the
accredited  Ambassador  (kuo-hsin-shih)  Ch'i-tai-t'o-yin, and  the
Senior Secretary of the Board of Works and Assistant Ambassador
(kuo-hsin-fu-shih)  Pu-yün-shih,496  to go and notify  Your kingdom
that  if  sincerely  you  can  respect   the   principle  of  Serving   the
Great, you  will  send  hither  a  son or younger brother  or  perhaps
a  high  minister  near  (the Throne), and  so  demonstrate  that  My
nation  has  no  intention  of  outcasting   anyone, and  thereby  con-
solidate our  friendship  forever. The  time  for  you  to  attain  good
fortune  has  come. As  for the  using  of  an  army, who  would  like
it? Your Majesty should reflect."

In   the  12th  year, 4th  month  (April  28th-May 26th, 1275),
Ho T'ien-chio, an-fu-shih (Junior Comforter)  of  Chien-ning Road,
reported   information   got   from A-kuo, chieftain  of  Gold  Teeth,
namely: "The  reason  why Ch'i-tai-t'o-yin  was  sent  to Mien, was
because  of  my  father, A-pi. In  the  9th  year  of  chih-yüan,   3rd
month  (March 3lst-April 28th, 1272), the  king    of    Mien,  hating

 

 

 

 

                    THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA'S HISTORY                        83

my  father A-pi, led  an  army of several myriads to invade us,  and
captured my father A-pi and  departed. There  was  nothing   for  it
but  to  pay  a  heavy  ranson  to  that  kingdom, and  so  obtain his
release. I therefore regard  the people of the Mien-chung  (Central
Burma) tribe  as  a  mere pack of dogs. At present Mien has  sent
A-ti-pa  and  others, nine persons, to go and spy out the reactions
of his people. The present  chieftain  of  the Pai-i ('White Clothes')
is a relative  by  marriage  (ch’in-ch’i) of  A-kuo, and  is   neighbour
to Mien. He  has  stated  that  to  enter Mien there are three  roads:
one by T'ien-pu-ma, one by P'iao-tien, and  one  by the borders of
A-kuo's land. All  meet  at  Chiang-t'ou  ('Riverhead') city  of   Mien.
Again   a  relative   by   marriage  of  A-kuo,  A-ti-fan, is   in    Mien,
holding  five  native  districts  (tien), each  with  ove r ten  thousand
households. He  wishes  to  submit  to  China. A-kuo wants first  to
call A-t'i-fan  and  those  of  the  Gold  Teeth  who have not yet  sub-
mitted, so as to make them lead the way. "

Yünnan  province  thereupon  reported: "The  king  of  Mien
refuses  to  submit. The  envoys  who  departed  have not returned.
We must certainly make a punitive expedition. "

In    the   6th  month   (June 25th-July 24th, 1275). the    War
office   (shu-mi-yüan) informed  the Emperor; but he said it  would
be better to wait a while.

In  the  11th   month   (Nov. 19th-Dec. 18th, 1275),   Yünnan
province  first  reported  that  it  had despatched persons to watch
and spy out news of the ambassadors, but the P'u rebels blocked
the  way. Now  the P'u had  mostly  submitted, and  the  road  was
already  open. They   had   sent   the   Governor   (tsung-kuan)  of
Kan-ê  of  Gold Teeth, A-ho,  who  had  found out  that the  ambas-
sadors had all reached Mien safely.

In  the  14th   year, 3rd    month     (April 5th-May 4th,  1277),
the people of Mien, bearing a grudge against A-ho for his  submis-
sion to China, attacked  his  land  and  sought to set up  stockades
between T'êng-yüeh and Yung-ch'ang. At  this  time Hu-tu,  Mongol
ch’ien-hu of Ta-li Road, and Hsin-chü Jih, Governor  of Ta-li  Road,
and T'o-lo-t'o-hai, tsung-pa and ch'ien-hu, had  received   imperial

 

 

 

 

 

84                                               G.H. Luce

orders to chastise the  yet  unsubdued tribes and clans, P'u,  P'iao,
A-ch'ang   and   Gold  Teeth, of  T'êng-yüeh, west  of   Yung-ch'ang,
and  to  station  themselves  at Nan-tien. A-ho sent them an  urgent
message. Hu-tu  and  the  rest  marched by day and night and  met
the  Mien  army  by  the  side  of  a river. They  were  a host of  forty
or  fifty  thousand  men, 800   elephants, and   10,000  horses.  The
army  of  Hu-tu  and  the rest  was  barely  700  men. The   men   of
Mien  led  first  with   the   cavalry, next   with   the   elephants,   next
with   the  infantry. The  elephants  wore  coats  of   mail, and   bore
on  their  backs  fighting-howdahs. On  both  sides they carried big
bamboo  tubes, furnished  with  several  tens  of  short spears. The
riders  on  the  elephants  would  take  these  out, and  use  them to
strike and pierce.

Hu-tu  issued  the  following  orders : "The  rebels  are  many.
We  are  few.  We  must  first  charge  the  army  north  of  the   river.
I  myself  will  lead  281 horsemen, forming one company.  Hsin-chü
Jih, with  233  horsemen, will  be  alongside  the  river, forming  one
company. T'o-lo-t'o-hai, with  187  men, will  rest  on  the   mountain,
forming one company." After  a  long  hand-to-hand fight the  rebels
were  defeated  and  they  fled.  Hsin-chü  Jih  pursued  them   three
li, and  reached  the  gate  of  the  stockade, but  got involved in  the
mud  and  retired. Suddenly, from, the  southern  side, over   10,000
rebel  troops  made  a circuit and came out at the back of our  army.
Hsin-chü Jih  rode  full-speed  and  informed  Hu-tu. Once  more  he
formed  the  three  companies  into  line, and  advanced  up  to   the
river-bank  and  attacked  them. Again  they   were   defeated    and
fled. He   pursued, and   captured   their 17  stockades, and    drove
them north  as  far  as  a  narrow  mountain  mouth, returning  to  the
charge  and  fighting over 30 li. The  rebels  and  the elephants and
the  horses  trampled  on  each  other. Their  dead  filled  three   big
ditches. In the  evening  Hu-tu  was wounded, and then he collected
his troops. On  the  following  day he  pursued  the  enemy as far as
Kan-ê, but  could   not   come   up  with   them, so  he  returned. The
prisoners   captured   were   very  many. In    the   army   one   could
exchange one living creature for a cap or a pair of boots or a piece

 

 

 

 

                       THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA'S HISTORY                       85

of felt. Those who  escaped, moreover, were  intercepted  and  killed
by  A-ho and  the  A-ch'ang; so  that  those  who  got  back  were  not
many. Of  our  regular  troops, although  those  who  suffered wounds
were  many, only  a  Mongol  soldier, who  had  captured an elephant
and  did  not   know   how   to   treat   it, was attacked  and  killed  (by
the animal ). Apart, from him, there was no one who died.

In   the   10th   month   (Oct. 28th-Nov.  26th,  1277),     Yunnan
province sent the Senior Comforter  (hsüan-wei-shih)  and   General
Commander  ( tu-yüan-shuai ) of  the   various   Roads   of    Yünnan,
Na-su-la-ting, at  the  head of Mongol, Ts'uan, P'o and Mo-so  troops,
over 3,840 men, to  invade  Mien. He  reached  Shên-jou  of  Chiang-
t'ou, where  the   chieftain, Hsi-an, had   set   up   his   stockade.   He
obtained  the  submission  of  over  300  stockades  including Mo-yü,
and  of  the  native  officials, P'u-chê  of  Ch'ü-la  with   4,000    house-
holds; Ai-lü   of   Mêng  Mo  with  1,000  households;  Mo-nai,   Mêng
K'uang ( and ) Li-ta-pa-la   with  20,000   households; Fu-lu-pao,   the
native  official  of  Mêng  Mang  tien,  with  10,000  households;   and
Mu-tu-tan-t'u with 200 households —altogether  35,200    households.
On account of the hot weather the army was withdrawn.

In   the   17th  year, 2nd      month     (March     3rd-3lst, 1280),
Na-su-la-ting   and   others   submitted   a    memorial   saying:  "The
geographical  features  of  Mien  have  all  been   seen  by  me,  your
servant. Formerly  Your  Majesty  gave  orders   that   if   the   various
commanderies  of  Ch'ung-ch'ing497 were   pacified,  then, after  that,
you  would  deal  with  Mien  kingdom. Now  Ssǔch'uan   is     already
basically   settled. We   request   you   to  reinforce   the   army    and
invade (Mien). "The Emperor questioned the ch’êng-hsiang  (Senior
Minister),  T'o-li-to-hai,498    who     said , "Your     Majesty     formerly
gave  orders  to  despatch  Ha-la-chang499  and Ssuch'uan  (troops),
together  with  those   under  the  banner   of    A-li-hai-ya,500 60,000
soldiers, on expedition to Mien. Now Na-su-la-ting only wants
to  get   10,000   men. "The Emperor assented.  At once he ordered
the  War Office  (shu-mi)  to make ready coats of mail and weapons,
and  supply  military  equipment, and  discuss the choice of generals
to lead out the army.

 

 

 

 

86                                                  G.H. Luce

In the 5th  month   (May  30th-June  28th, 1280), he  ordered
Yunnan  province  to  despatch 10,000 Ssǔch'uan troops, and com-
manded  Yo-la-hai  to  lead  them, together  with  the  generals  pre-
viously sent, for the Mien expedition.

In   the   19th  year, 2nd    month      (March   11th - April   9th,
1282), he sent orders to Ssǔ, Po, Hsü501 and other commanderies,
and  to  I-hsi-pu-hsieh502 and other places of  the  various  southern
barbarians, to  despatch  local   troops   for   the   Mien   expedition.

In  the  20th  year,  11th  month  (Nov. 21st-Dec. 19th,  1283),
the  government  army  attacked Mien and conquered it. Previously
the  Emperor had  sent  orders to  the  Prince of the Blood.  Hsiang-
wu-ta-êrh, to  the  yu-ch’êng  (Senior   Assistant-Governor)   T'ai-pu,
and  to  the  ts'an-chih-chêng-shih   (State Counsellor)    Yeh-han-ti-
chin, to  lead  the  troops  on  the  Mien expedition. In the 9th  mouth
of this year  (Sept. 22nd-Oct. 21st), the  main   army   started    from
Chung-ch'ing   (Yünnan   Fu). In   the  10th  month    (Oct.   22nd-Nov.
20th) it   reached   Nan-tien. T'ai-pu   took  forward   his   troops   by
way    of    Lo-pi  tien. In   the  11th   month    (Nov. 21st - Dec.  19th)
Hsiang-wu-ta-êrh  commanded  Yeh-han-ti-chin  to  take   the    road
by  the  A-hsi  river, to  reach  the A-ho  river   of   Chên-hsi,  and   to
build   200   boats  and  float  downstream    to   Chiang-t'ou   ('River-
head') city, and  so  cut  off  the  water-road  of  the  people  of  Mien.
He  himself  led one army  by  P'iao-tien straight into  their  kingdom;
and  having   joined   hands  with  T'ai-pu's   army, he   ordered    the
various  generals  to  attack  from  different   directions;   whereupon
they   captured    by   storm    their   Chiang-t'ou   city, killing   in    the
battle   over  10,000  men. He  detailed   the  General   Commander
(tu-yüan-shuai), Hsüan  Shih-an, to  employ  his  troops in guarding
the land  and  collecting  stores  of  grain  to  supply his forces.  And
he sent messengers with a map  of  the  country  for  submission  to
the Emperor.

In  the  22nd  year, 11th  month  (Nov. 28th-Dec. 26th, 1285),
the   king   of   Mien   sent   his  superintendent  of  salt  wells, Api-li-
hsiang, to T'ai-kung city. He  wished   to   come   and   make  terms,
but    he  was   stopped   by  the Pai-i (' White Clothes ') chieftain of

 

 

 

 

                     THE EARLY SYĀM  IN BURMA'S HISTORY                      87

Mêng Nai tien, Tai-sai. Not   being  able  to  proceed, he  sent  one
T'êng-ma-chai,503 with  a  one-sheet  supplementary letter, to bring
information   to   the  native  official   of   P'iao-tien, Ni-su,  and  beg
him  to  convey  a  message  to the authorities above him, that  they
should  spare  the  army  from  entering  the  frontier. Ni-su  gave   a
passport, and  sent  T'êng-ma-chai  back  to  Chiang-t'ou   city, and
summoned A-pi-li-hsiang to go  to  the  province. He  also reported
the  matter  to  the  Senior  Comforter  (hsüan-wei-ssǔ)   and   Com-
forters   (hsüan-fu-ssǔ)  of  Chên-hsi, P'ing-mien, Li-ch'uan504  and
other  Roads. They  sent  three  persons  holding  passports ( shan-
ch’ih-pang
?)505 to  Chiang-t'ou  city, for delivery to the two persons,

A-pi-li-hsiang   and   Mang-chih-pu-suan,  and   fixed   a   date    two
months  later  when  they  would  lead  a  force  to  Chiang-t'ou   city.
The  Comforters  (hsüan-fu-ssǔ)  led  Mongol  troops  to  P'iao-tien,
where  the  interview  took  place   and   matters   were    discussed.
A-pi-li-hsiang begged them to address the Court to send  down  an
imperial edict accepting their repentance for  their   transgressions;
after  which  (Mien)  would  send a great  minister  to   the  Gate   of
the    Court.  Soon    after,  (the    Emperor)   sent    Ch'ieh-lieh,   the
darugaci  of  the  Comfortership  (hsüan-fu-ssǔ)  of  Chên-hsi   and
P'ing-mien,  combining   the   office   of   chao-t'ao-shih    ('imperial
delegate   to   summon  and  punish'), as  envoy   to   the    kingdom
( of Mien).

In   the   23rd  year, 10th  month  (Oct. 19th-Nov. 16th,  1286),
the Emperor appointed the chao-t'ao-shih Chang Wan506 as Assis-
tant    General    Commander  of   Chêng-mien   (lit., 'Expedition   to
Mien'); Yeh-hsien-t'ieh-mu-êrh507 as darugaci of  the   chao-t'ao-ssǔ
(office of the chao-t'ao-shih)    of   Chêng-mieu; and   the   ch'ien-hu
Chang  Ch'êng508   as   chao-t'ao-shih   of   Chêng-mien;  all    were

given   the  Tiger   Tally. The    Emperor's   orders    were   to     build
fighting  boats  and  lead  an army of 6,000 men to Chêng-mien.  He
made  T'u-man-tai509  the  General  Commander, to  be  in   general
charge. The  Prince   of   Yünnan, in   view   of   the   fact   that    Ai-lu,
yu-ch'êng  (Senior   Assistant  Governor)  of   the  province, had   re-

 

 

 

 

88                                           G.H. Luce

ceived  imperial  orders  to  raise levies from the land of  Gold Teeth
and  Ch'a-han-tieh-chi-lien,510   despatched  a  force  of  1,000  men.

In  this  same  month  (the   expedition)  started   from   Chung-
ch'ing  Fu  (=  Yünnan  Fu), and  in  due  course reached Yung-ch'ang
Fu, where it  met  the  officials of Chèng-mien province. The crossed
A-hsi tien, and  despatched  a  force  of  500   men   to   escort   and
guard   the   imperial    delegate   to   summon  Mien, Ch'ieh-lieh,  as
far as T'ai-kung city.

In   the   24th   year, 1st   month   (Jan. 15th - Feb. 13th, 1287),
they   reached  Mang-nai tien. The  king  of  Mien   was   seized  and
imprisoned   by   his   concubine's son, Pu-su-su-ku-li, at   the   place
Hsi-li-ch'ieh-ta-la     (Śrī Kṣetra).  The    l atter     also   put   to    death
three sons  of  the  queen  proper, and   rebelled   together  with  four
big    ministers,  Mu-lang-chou    and    others. A-nan-ta,  the   official
under orders from the Prince of Yünnan, and others were also
put to death.

In   the  2nd   month   (Feb. 14th-Mar. 15th, 1287), Ch'ieh-lieh
embarked  on  boats from Mang-nai tien, leaving there the 500 men
of his original escort. Yünnan province asked leave of  the  Emperor
to  advance  and  punish (Mien during   the  following  autumn,   but
he   refused. Soon   after, the  Prince  of  Yünnan, together  with   the
other  princes, advanced   and   invaded  as  far  as   P'u-kan, losing
over 7,000 men  of  his  army. Mien began to be pacified, and  there
was fixed a yearly tribute of local products.

In  the  1st  year  of  ta-tê, 2nd   month    (Feb. 23rd-Mar. 23rd,
1297 ), in  view  of   the   fact   that   the   king   of   Mien,  Ti-li-p'u-wa-
na-a-ti-t'i-ya   (Tribhuvanâditya), had  sent   his    son     Hsin-ho-pa-ti,
to  submit  a  memorial  at  Court  requesting   leave  to pay a  yearly
tribute   of   2,500  taels  of   silver, 1,000   pieces  of  silk, 20    tame
elephants, and 10,000 piculs of grain, the Emperor issued a  decree
appointing   Ti-li-p'u-wa-na-a-ti-t'i-ya   King   of   Mien, and conferred
on   him  a  silver  seal; and   appointed   his   son, Hsin-ho-pa-ti,   as
heir-apparent   of   Mien   kingdom, and  conferred  on him the  Tiger
Tally.

 

 

 

 

                  THE EARLY SYĀM IN BURMA'S HISTORY                        89

In   the   3rd   year, 3rd   month   (Apr. 2nd-30th, 1299),  Mien
again  sent  its  heir-apparent  to  submit a  memorial of thanks.  He
himself   reported   that  his  tribespeople  were   being   killed   and
plundered   by   the  Gold  Teeth, and  that  this has caused general
poverty and  want, thus  making  it  impossible  for  them  to pay  the
gold  and  silks  offered  as  tribute   at   the   appointed   time.   The
Emperor  took  pity  on  him, and   only   ordered   him   every   other
year to offer tribute of elephants. As before, he  bestowed   clothing
on him and sent him back.

In   the   4th   year, 4th  month     (Apr. 20th - May 18th, 1300),
(Mien) sent envoys to submit a white elephant.

In   the   5th month    (May   19th - June  17th, 1300),  Ti-li-p'u-
wa-na-a-ti-t'i-ya was   killed   by  his  younger brother   A-san-ko-yeh
and others. His son, K'u-ma-la-ko-sa-pa escaped  and  reached the
capital. Mang-wan-t'u-lu-mi-shih  was  ordered   to   put   himself   at
the   head   of   an   army  and  go  and  inquire  into  the  crime.  The
southern   barbarian   rebels   were   in   league   with   Pa-pai-hsi-fu
kingdom.  Their    strength    was    widely   extended,  Mang-wan-t'u-
lu-mi-shih  requested   the   Emperor  to  reinforce  the  army; so  he
commanded Hsieh-ch'ao-wu-êrh and others to take 12,000 men on
the expedition. Again he ordered Prince K'uo-k'uo to be in
general control of the army.

In   the   6th   month   (June    18th-July 16th, 1300),   the   Em-
peror   issued  an edict appointing K'u-ma-la-ko-sa-pa as king, and
conferred on him a silver seal.

In   the   autumn, 7th   month    (July   17th-August 14th, 1300),
Chê-su, younger   brother   of   the   Mien   rebel   A-san-ko-yeh, and
others, 91 persons, each submitted local products at  Court. Orders
were   sent   that   the   others   should   stay   at   Chung-ch'ing,  and
Chê-su, etc., alone sent on to Shang-to.

In    the    8th   month   (Aug.   I5th-Sept.  13th,  1300),   A-san-
chi-ya   of   Mien   kingdom, etc., elder  and  younger brothers, came
to  the  Gate  of  the  Court, and  in  person  confessed their crime of
killing their lord. The  Emperor  cancelled   the   Mien   expeditionary
force.

In   the   5th   year, 9th month (Oct. 3rd. - 3lst, 1301), the  ts'an-
chih-ch
êng-shih (State Counsellor)  or  Yünnan, Kao Ch'ing,511 and

 

 

 

 

90                                                 G.H. Luce

the Comforter (hsüan-fu-shih), Ch'a-han-pu-hua,512 were beheaded.
At     first     (Kao)   Ch'ing, etc.,  followed    Hsieh-ch'ao-wu-êrh    and
besieged    Mien. After   two   months, fuel  and  food  within  the  city
were  all  exhausted ; it    seems   that   they   were   on    the  point of
coming   out   to   submit ; when   (Kao) Ch'ing, etc., received   heavy
bribes    from  them, and, making the hot weather  and  malaria  their
excuse, led off their army and returned. Therefore they were
executed.

In the 10th  month   (Nov. lst-30th, 1301), Mien   sent    envoys
to submit tribute.

Extract (xvii).       Section    on    HSIEN513    (Siam, Sukhodaya-Y.S.,
 ch. 210).

Hsien   kingdom, in  the  1st year  of  the  yüan-chêng period
of Ch'êng Tsung (1295 A.D.), submitted  a  memorial  to  the Throne
in   gold  characters, desiring the Court  to  send  an  envoy  to   their
kingdom. By   the   time   this  memorial  arrived, the   Emperor  had
already  sent   an   envoy — a   fact   not   yet   known  to  Hsien.  He
bestowed  on  the  envoy  who  came  a  plain  gold  tally  for  him  to
wear   at   the   waist. The  envoy   hastened   to   follow    the   envoy
bearing   the   imperial    letter, so    that    they   might   go   together.
Whereas  the  people  of  Hsien  and  Ma-li-yu-êrh had been quarrel-
ling and  killing each   other   from   of  old, and   now   had   both   re-
turned   to   their  allegiance  (to   China),   there   was   an   imperial
decree   issued    notifying   the   people  of  Hsien not to injure Ma-li-
yü-êrh and thus trample on its promise.

In   the   3rd  year of   ta-te   ( 1299   A.D. ), the  lord  of Hsien
kingdom  addressed   the  Emperor  saying, that  at  the  time  when
his   father was  on  the  throne, the  Court  had  bestowed  on  him a
white   horse   with   saddle  and  reins, and  a  dress  of gold thread.
" I request you to  follow  the  old  precedent, and  bestow  the same."
In   view   of   the  words  of    the   ch’êng-hsiang    (Senior Minister),
Wan-tsê-ta-la-han,514 who said it  was a  small  kingdom, and   if   it
was granted a  horse, he   feared   its   neighbours,  Hsin-tu,515   etc.,
might    laugh   at  or  criticize  the   Court,  the    Emperor   therefore
bestowed a dress of gold thread, but did not bestow the horse.



 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 


 






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