The History of the Thai in Yunnan. พิมพ์ อีเมล
เขียนโดย M. Carthew, M.D. (Phya Ayuraved Vichakshana)   

CARTHEW, M. THE HISTORY OF THE THAI IN YUNNAN. JSS. VOL.40 (pt.1) 1952. p.1-38.

 

THE HISTORY OF THE THAI IN YUNNAN

2205 B.C.-1253 A.D.

By

M. Carthew, M.D. (Phya Ayuraved Vichakshana)

 

          There   are   no   Thai  records  of the   history of the Thai race
during   the   many  centuries it lived in South China in what is now
known  as  the  province of Yunnan, and such records as exist only
commence  in  the  13th century A.D.  after the establishment of the
Thai Kingdom of Sukhodaya.
          To  obtain    information   on   this  subject  one  has  to refer to
Chinese  records,  local  legends and customs  in Yunnan and from
those a rather sketchy history has been built up since the beginning
of  this  century  by  Europeans  (usually French) who have patiently
translated  some  of  these  records.  Much credit must also be given
to   the   investigations   by   Gerini   of   these   translations.  He  has
collated   this   information   and   was  I  believe  the  first  person  to
connect  the  Kingdom  of  Nan  Chao with the Thai of Thailand. The
best  known  translation,  I  understand,  is   that of Monsieur Camille
Sanson  of  Yang  Shen's  "Romance  of  the  Kingdom of Nan Chao".
He was a customs officer in the Chinese service stationed at Yunnan
for  many  years.  Unfortunately   his  knowledge  of Chinese was not
profound  and  his  translation  has  been  found  to  be  full  of  errors.
          Towards   the  end  of  the  last  century  an  English  missionary
named   G.W.   Clark   was   stationed   in  Tali-fu  and  Ynnnan-fu  for
many  years.  He  was  something  of  a  sinologue,  was interested in
local  history,  the  local tribes, their customs, languages and legends
and  with  the  assistance  of  a  local Chinese scholar he translated a
Chinese   manuscript   he  found  at  Tali-fu  called  a  " History  of  the
Southern   Princes  ".   It   was  written  in  1537  A.D.  by  Yang-tsai  of
Chen-t'u  fu  in  Szuchuan  and  re-edited  by  Hu-yu of Wuchang-fu in
Hupeh   in   1776.   Both   of   these   men  were  classical  scholars  of
the   first   grade   with   the   high   degree   of   Chang   Wien   so  it  is
presumable  that  their  account  is  as  authentic  as any other ancient
history.

 

                                                            (2)


          G.W. Clark  published  several  papers  on  the  tribes  of Yunnan
together    with    his    translation    of    Yang - tsai's   "  History   of   the
Southern  Princes "  in  a  small  book printed at the Shanghai Mercury
Press   in   1894   in   a   very   limited   edition   for   distribution  to  his
friends.  Very  few  copies appear to have been sold as no Europeans
had   much   interest   in   Yunnan  in  those  days.  At  any  rate  at  the
present  date  this  book  is  unknown  in  the  libraries  of  Europe and
America.   Only   four  copies  are  now  known  to  exist  and  they  are
all in the hands of one owner.
          The    "History    of    the   Southern   Princes"   gives   a   detailed
account   of   the  Thai  race  in  Yunnan  from  the  earliest  times.  The
beginning   is   compiled   from   local  legends,  and  recorded  history
commences  in  280  B.C.  G.W.  Clark has investigated these legends
and  discovered  that  they  still  existed  at  the  end  of the last century
and  that  several local customs and ceremonies were associated with
them,   thus   tending  to  show  that  they  have  a  basis  of  truth.  This
record  relates  how  the  Kingdom  of  Nan  Chao  came  into  being; it
gives  the  name  of  every  king  who  ruled  it  and  the chief events of
each   reign   until   that   Kingdom   ceased  to  exist  as  such  after  its
conquest  by  Kublai  Khan  in  1253  A.D. What was of special interest
to    me,    it    clothed    the   bare   bones   of   history   with   interesting
narratives  which  showed  clearly  what  the  Thai  were  like  in  those
far  off  days  thus  enabling  one  to  compare  them  with  the  Thai  of
today.   From  the  very  way  he  writes  it  is  quite  evident  that  Yang-
tsai  was  symphathetic  towards  the  Thai  (if  one  takes into account
that,   to   him,   they   were  barbarians)  and  he  appeare  to  give  full
credit to their virtues.
          In   the   whole   history   there   is   no   single   trace   of   a   Thai
name  with  the  exception  of  the  word  "Chao"  or  chief. Every name
sounds  like  a  Chinese  name. If however one examines the Chinese,
records  of  pilgrimages,  embassies  etc.  to foreign countries from the
beginning  of  the  Christian  era  down  to  the  end of the 19th century,
all  names,  even  English  names,  are  made to sound as if they were
Chinese.

 

                                                          (3)


Last    March    I    had   the   rare   fortune   to   be   lent   a   copy   of
G.W.  Clark's  book  and  was  allowed  to  take full notes from it; it is
these  notes  that  I  propose  to  read  to you tonight. It is no original
work  of  mine ;  I  am  just  a  copyist,  As  after  considerable investi-
gation  I  had  been unable to discover any work which gave such a
detailed  account  of  the  early  history  of  the  Thai  race, I felt that I
ought   to   share  my  luck  with  my  Thai  friends,  being  under  the
impression   that   they   might  even  be  more  interested  in  it  than
I am.
          Yunnan  is  first   mentioned   in  Chinese  history  in 2205-2198
B.C. as a country  lying  to the south and not included in any Chinese
Kingdom.   It   was  then  known  to  the   Chinese  historians  as  "The
Territory of the Hsi-nan"—meaning the  southern Barbarians—and its
inhabitants were called "ungovernable vermin". Local legend asserts
that  the  Thai  of  Nan  Chao  were  of  Indian origin coming originally
from   the   valley   of  the  Indus.  From  the  first  mention  in  Chinese
history  up to modern times the Thai have never been called Chinese
nor have they been claimed to be Chinese either by themselves or by
the  Chinese  and  to this day the Thai in Yunnan are called "Pa-yi" by
the Chinese.  Throughout   Chinese history their name has constantly
been   changed.  For  many  centuries  they  were  called  Hsi-nan.  In
225  B.C.  they  were  called  P'u-jen  and  the  term  "vermin" dropped
though   they   were   always   called  ungovernable.  Later  they  were
called  Tien-jen  and  then  Luchao,  i.e.  the  inhabitants  of Nan Chao.
From   225   B.C.  up  to  the  17th  century  when  Yunnan  was  finally
incorporated  in  the  Chinese  Empire  Yunnan  was  called  by  many
different   names   by   the   Chinese   historians   but  they  state  quite
clearly   that   the  Thai  themselves  always  referred  to  their  country
as Nan Chao.
          It   is   stated   in   the   "History   of   the  Southern  Princes"  that
King  Asoka  of  Magada  (now  called  Bihar)  lived  for  a time at Tali-
fu  then  ruled  over  by  an  Indian  prince,  and  that he there married
a   princess   from   Tali-fu   called   Ch'ien-meng-kui.  By  her  he  had
three    sons,    the   eldest   being   called   Ti-meng-ch'ien-fu-le.   The
latter's   eldest   son   was   called  Meng-cu-fu   and   he  became  the

 

                                                         (4)


          Last   March   I   had   the   rare   fortune   to   be   lent  a  copy  of
G.W.  Clark's  book  and  was  allowed  to  take  full  notes  from i t; it is
these  notes  that  I  propose  to  read  to  you  tonight.  It  is no original
work   of   mine;   I   am  just  a  copyist.  As  after  considerable  investi-
gation  I  had  been  unable  to  discover  any work which gave such a
detailed  account  of  the  early  history  of  the  Thai  race,  I  felt  that  I
ought   to   share   my   luck   with   my  Thai  friends,  being  under  the
impression   that   they   might   even   be   more   interested  in  it  than
I am.
          Yunnan  is  first  mentioned  in  Chinese  history  in  2205 - 2198
B.C.  as  a  country lying to the south and not included in any Chinese
Kingdom.   It   was   then   known  to  the  Chinese  historians  as  "The
Territory  of  the Hsi-nan"—meaning the southern Barbarians—and its
inhabitants  were called "ungovernable vermin". Local legend asserts
that  the  Thai  of  Nan  Chao  were  of  Indian  origin coming originally
from   the    valley   of  the  Indus.  From  the  first  mention  in  Chinese
history  up  to modern times the Thai have never been called Chinese
nor have they been claimed to be Chinese either by themselves or by
the  Chinese  and  to this day the Thai in Yunnan are called "Pa-yi" by
the  Chinese.  Throughout  Chinese history their name has constantly
been   changed.  For  many  centuries  they  were  called  Hsi-nan.  In
225  B.C.  they  were  called  P'u-jen  and  the  term  "vermin" dropped
though   they   were   always   called  ungovernable.  Later  they  were
called  Tien-jen  and  then  Luchao,  i.e.  the  inhabitants of Nan Chao.
From  225  B.C.  up  to  the  17th  century  when  Yunnan   was   finally
incorporated  in  the  Chinese  Empire  Yunnan  was  called  by  many
different   names   by   the   Chinese   historians   but  they  state  quite
clearly   that   the  Thai  themselves  always  referred  to  their  country
as Nan Chao.
          It    is   stated   in   the  "History  of   the  Southern  Princes"  that
King  Asoka  of  Magada  (now  called  Bihar)  lived  for a time at Tali-
fu  then  ruled  over  by  an  Indian  prince, and that he there married
a   princess   from   Tali-fu  called  Ch'ien-meng-kui.  By  her  he  had
three   sons,   the   eldest   being   called   Ti-meng-ch'ien-fu-le.   The
hitter's   eldest   son    was  called  Meng-cu-fu  and  he became  the

 

                                                        (5)

 

ancestor  of  the  sixteen  kingdoms.  One  of  his descendants in the
direct  line,  Prince  Jen-kue,  became  King  of  Tien,  122 - 117 B.C.,
and  from  the  latter  was  descended  the  long line of kings of Nan
Chao.
          The  country   around   Tali-fu   to   this   day   (1890)  is  ful l of
legends  of  King  Asoka and his three sons and there are still many
annual  ceremonies  carried  out  by the local Thai in memory of his
sons thus suggesting that this land was ruled over by Indian princes
two thousand years ago.
          The   legend   as   it    is  nowadays  related  states  that  many
centuries  before  the  founding  of  the  Kingdom  of  Tien  at Tali in
280  B.C.  a  prince  of the Indian dynasty named Prince Ah-in then
ruling  at  Tali  was  caught  up  into the clouds and there married a
heavenly virgin by whom he had three sons. The oldest was called
Kin  Mah  (Golden  Horse),  the  second son Pichi (Jade Fowl), and
the  third  was  named  Peh-fan (meaning "Plain Rice") because he
was  such  a  strict  Buddhist  and  ate  only  plain  rice.  He  lived at
Tali.   There   are   still   memorials   to  these  three  princes  at  Tali.
Prince  Peh-fan  is  now known as Prince Peh-wang (White Prince).
His  tomb  is  situated at  the entrance  to  a  cave  at  the foot of the
Ti-shi mountain  behind the village of Shwang-itien which is about
12  li,  (3   Chinese  li  =  1  English  mile? )  from  the  north gate of
Tali-fu.   His   palace  stood  on  the  main  street  of  Tali  and  was
destroyed   after   the  capitulation  of  Tali  to  the  Chinese  and  a
Confucian  temple  erected  on the site. On the 16th day of the 3rd
moon every year  (this being the first day of the great fair at Tali-fu)
a  ceremony   is held attended by all the high officials, in which two
hundred  soldiers fire off three volleys in order to appease the soul
of the White Prince so that he may not incite the people to rebellion.
          The names of the first and second princes are perpetuated in
the  names  of  two  mountains  which  lie  to the west of Yunnan-fu.

 

                                                          (6)

 

One   is    called    Kin-mah-shan    and    the  other  Pi-chi-shan.  (The
private   names   of   these   three  princes  were Fu-pan, Uen-teh and
Ci-teh.)  The   mimes   of   the   mountains  originated  in the following
manner.    Their    father    Prince    Ah-in  whilst  living  at   Yunnan-fu
had   a   very   fine  golden coloured (chesnut) stallion  which both Fu-
pan   and   Uen-teh   wanted   and  they  were  constantly  quarrelling
about    it.   Their   father   in   order   to  settle  their    bickerings   said:
"Whosoever  can  catch  it, it shall be his ." So he let the stallion loose.

Prince  Ci-teh  caught  it  on  the   east  hill  so that hill was called ever
after   Kin-mah-shan.   One   day   Fu-pan  and Uen-teh were strolling
upon    the    west    hil l and  saw  a  very    beautiful  bird  which  was
unknown   to   the   farmers.  They called it   the Jade Fowl, hence the
name of the mountain.
          Prince   Ah-in  —  otherwise  King    Asoka— the father of these
three   sons,   after   the  duration  of  some    years at Tali returned to
India leaving his wife and sons behind.  After  a lapse of two or three
years  he  sent  his  mother-in-law   accompanied   by soldiers as an
escort,  to  bring  his  wife  and  sons  to   India.  When  they  reached
Yang-ch'ang-fu   the   barbarians  refused    them   passage  so  they
returned   to   India  while  the  sons  remained  in   Yunnan as ruling
princes   and   died  there.  Their  father  then sent orders  to Yunnan
from   India   that  their  spirits should be made the tutelary  deities of
these   two   mountains  in  their  memory.  In  73  A.D.  it  is recorded
that  the Emperor Suien-ti, hearing of this legend, sent a high official
to  make  a  sacrifice  to  their spirits in his name and this is recorded
in the Chinese history of that period.


The foundation of the Tien Dynasty.
          After  a  long  interval  records  of  this  part  of Yunnan begin to
appear  in  Chinese historical manuscripts. Under the Chou Dynasty
1112  B.C.  Yunnan appears under the name of Shan-tsan. Only the
name is known and no account of its rulers is given.
          In   280-220   B.C.   General   Chuan-Chao   was   sent  by  the
Chinese Emperor to conquer Szu-chuan and to explore the Yangtze
River.  He  arrived  on  the shores of Yunnan Lake but his road back
to China was blocked by a war between two neighbouring kingdoms
therefore  he  stayed  there  and  made  himself  king  of all that land,
calling   it  Tien  Kuo;  and  thus  was  founded  the  dynasty  of  Tien.
However,  the  western  part  of  Yunnan a round  the  shores  of Tali
Lake  was  still  ruled  over by the descendants of the Indian princes.

 

                                                          (7)

 

          187-140  B.C.  The  Emperor  Wu-ti  sent message s to the King
of  Tien  to  seek  a  road  to  Shen-ta-ku  (in  India;  the   region of the
basin   of   the   Indus)   to  make  enquiries  regarding   the  Buddhist
religion  from  a  noted  Buddhist  monk  who  lived at  Tien. The King
of Tien asked these messengers "Which is the greater,  the Kingdom
of  Han  or  my  Kingdom  ? "  This  was  reported  to the  Emperor on
their  return  and  it  enraged  him  so  he  sent  troops  to  attack Tien
and conquered it.

122-117 B.C.  The  foundation  of  the  Pai-tzu-kuo   Kingdom.
          In 122-117  B.C. Prince Jen  Kuo,  a  descendant  in  the  direct
line  from  King  Asoka,  ruled  over  the  western  portion of Tien and
Prince Ch'ang-ch'ieng, a descendant of General Chuan-ch'iae, ruled
over  the  eastern  part  around  Yunnan  Lake.  It  is  stated  that both
these princes were called by the title of chao.
          A    quarrel    arose     between    them   and   they   fought.   The
Emperor  Wu-ti  of  the   Han  Dynasty  favoured  and  assisted Prince
Jen  Kuo  and  Prince   Ch'ang-eh'ieng was defeated. Prince Jen Kuo
was   then   elected  by  the   people  to  rule  over  both  Eastern  and
Western   Tien.   He  called   his  kingdom  Pai-tzu-kuo  and  changed
his   capital   from   Tali  to   Ch'ang-eh-ieng  southeast  of  Yunnan-fu.
At    this   date   and   for   some    centuries   earlier,   the   religion   of
the people of Pai-tzu-kuo had been Buddhism, introduced direct from
India,  and  it  is  recorded  in  Chinese history that in 20 A.D. a certain
Chang-chiang,  King  of  Pai- tzu- kuo,  was  such a devoted Buddhist
that  he  completely  neglected  his duties as a ruler; the people there-
fore  deposed  him  and  invited  a  member  of  the Peh-nai family—a
direct  descendant  of  the  Indian  rulers  of  Tali — to  rule  over them.
From    122    B.C.   to   225   A.D.   the   records   are   very   few   and
the  Kingdom   of   Pai-tzu-kuo   is   seldom   mentioned   in   Chinese
history.

208 A.D. Tlw foundation of the Ailo-kuo Kingdom.
           The   founder   of  the  Ailo   Kingdom   was   Prince   Chin-lung
(descended   in   direct   line   from   King   Asoka)  with  his  Tali  wife,

 

                                                            (8)

 

Ch'ien-meng-kui,  through his son Ti-meng-ch'ien-fu-le, to Meng-chu
who   was   the   ancestor   of  Prince  Chin-lung  and  so  also  of  the
celebrated  Meng  family  which  ruled at  Nan Chao from 649 A.D. to
902.    In   69  A.D.  the  King  of  Ailo  submitted  to  the  Imperial  rule.
The     Kingdom    of   Ailo   was   the   name   given   to   that   country
by  the  barbarians  who  ruled  it.  The  Chinese  called it Jung Chow
or  Shen-to-kuo.  The  name  Shen-tu-kuo,  however, was considered
by  other  Chinese  historians  to  be  a  name  fo r that part of India in
the  basin  of  the  Indus.  These  latter  say  that  Chin-lung ruled over
it and that it had no intercourse with China.
5s A.D. The foundation of the Six Kingdoms of Nan Chao.
          In     50     A.D.    the    Kingdom    of   Ailo   combined   with   the
neighbouring tribes and revolted against Chinese  suzerainty. These
tribes  then  divided  themselves  up  into  six  kingdoms  called  "The
Six  Kingdoms  of Nan Chao". Each kingdom was quite independent
of  the  others  and  was  ruled over by its own hereditary prince. Five
of  thes e kingdoms  were  Thai in race while the sixth was called the
Na-khi  with  its  capital  at  Li  Chiang.  The  Na-khi was a Mongolian
tribe  of  Tibeto — Bnrman  stock; they  were  hill-dwellers,  and in no
way related to the Thai.
          In   225   A.D.   the   Emperor   Hou-ti   attacked the state of Shu
in   Yunnan .   He   stopped   at   Pai-ngai  and  found  reigning  there
Prince  Lu-yu-na,  a  descendant  from  Prince  Jen-Kuo  in  the  18th
generation.
226 A.D. The true history of the Nan Chao Kingdom.
          In  226  A.D.  the  Marquis  Chu-ko-liang of Shantung was sent
by  the  Emperor Wu-ti to quell a rebellion against Chinese authority
at  Ailo.   This   rebellion   was  started  by  a  Chinese  official  called
Yang-kai   and   he  wa s joined  by  Prince  Meng-kuo,  a  hereditary
prince  of one of the six Nan Chao Kingdoms. He was a descendant
in  the  direct  line  from  King  Asoka  o f the  38th generation. At this
period  of  history  Prince  Lung-ya-na-also  a  descendant from King
Asoka  through  Prince  Jen-Kuo—was  king  of  the  region  south of
Tali and his kingdom was called Petzu.

 

                                                           (9)

 

virtue, wisdom and courage had risen to great eminence, under the
Emperor's  father;  and,  by  him,  had  been  appointed  guardian to
Chien-hsin ih his youth.)
          When  Yang-kai  heard  of  the  approach of the Imperial army
he  asked  his  friends  Prince Meng-kuo of Tien, Chin-pae and Kao-
tang  to join him in resisting the Chinese troops. Between them they
collected   an  army  of  four  divisions,  each  division  consisting  of
50,000 men.
          The   Marquis   attacked,   defeated  and  killed  Yang-kai.  He
also  captured  Prince Meng-kuo. Shortly after this General Mah-tse
arrived  from  the  Imperial  court  with  despatches and presents for
the  Marquis.  In  conversatio n Chu-ko-liang  asked Mah-tse for his
opinion  as to the best method of introducing and preserving peace
in this rebellious country.
          Mah-tse  replied :  "Though  I may be prejudiced in my opinion,
nevertheless,  think  over  my  words. These Tai are a self-confident
and  lawless  race;  the  distant  position  of  their  country from ours,
the  high  mountains,  the  dangerous  roads,  only  encourage their
rebellious  ideas.  If  you  crush them today, then tomorrow they will
rally  and rebel  again.  Doubtless,  your  army  will be able to crush
them again, but to keep them in permanent subjection and preserve
order  you  would have to keep a large standing army in the country;
and  then, as soon as you removed it rebellion would  at once recur.
I  strongly  advise  you  to  contend  with their minds rather than with
their  bodies  or  thei r cities.  First  govern  their hearts and then you
will  without  trouble  be  able  to govern their bodies and their cities.
Conquest   of   their  reason   is  all  important  and  their  loyalty  will
follow after it,"
          Marquis   Chu-ko-liang   replied:  "You  see  through  my  body
(literally,  into  my  most  intimate  thoughts).  I  agree  with  you  fully."
Chinese classical scholars affirm that the Marquis Chu-ko-liang was
the finest strategist and statesman in the  history  of  China (and that
was his opinion of the Tai 1700 years ago).
           Afte r killing  Yang-kai  and  capturing  Prince  Meng - kuo  for

 

                                                            (10)

 

the  first  time, the latter was escorted as a prisoner to the Marquis's
tent.  The  Marquis  dressed  in  full  uniform  was waiting to receive
him.   After   saluting   his   prisoner,   Chu-ko-liang   said:  "My  late
master treated you most graciously, for what reason therefore have
you  rebelled  against  his  son,  my  present  master ? "
          Prince    Meng-kuo   replied:   "All  eastern  and  western  Szu-
chuan  at  one  time  belonged  to  others;  now  it  belongs  to  your
Emperor,  but  he  took  it  by  force.  My  country  of Tien belongs to
me  and my people, as it did to my ancestors for many generations,
and  then  you,  in the name of your Emperor, come with an army to
seize it. Why should I not rebel? "
          The   Marquis   replied:   "You   are   my  prisoner,  my captive.
Will  you  or  will  you  not   submit  to  the  Imperial  ruler? "
          The  Prince  answered  :  "Alas,  you  only  captured  me  by  a
trick  and  good  luck. I refuse to submit or to owe allegiance to your
Emperor.   Though   you  call  us  barbarians  and  say  that  we are
Savages living beyond the bounds of civilization, nevertheless, my
people  have  perfect confidence in fighting you until at last we are
victorious.  Why  should  we  be  your  slaves ?  Only  if  my people
are  conquered  will I submit. I personally might perhaps be willing
to surrender but my people never."
          The  Marquis   was  so pleased with the defiant answer of this
courageous man  that he released the Prince, gave him a banquet,
presented  him  with a horse magnificently caparisoned, bestowed
many valuable presents on him and provided him with an escort so
that he might reach home safely.
           The   above  is  the  story  of  the  first  occasion  on  which the
Marquis Chu-ko-liang captured Prince Meng-kuo. How he captured
him  by  strategy  on  five  further  occasions  is  related  in  detail  in
Yang - tsai's    narrative.  He  did  not  conquer  him  in  battle.  Each
time  he  captured  him,  the  Marquis asked the Prince to recognise
the  Emperor's  authority  and  each  time  the  Prince refused with a
defiant  answer  and  each  time  the  Marquis  released him. Finally
Prince   Meng-kuo   was   defeated  in  battle  and  captured  for  the
seventh time.

 

                                                            (11)

 

           The   Marquis   ordered   the Prince to be brought before him,
told  the escort to unbind him and invited him to a sumptuous feast.
The  day  after  this  an  officer  came  to  the  Prince's tent and said:
"The Marquis does not wish to see you again—I am sent to set you
free  so  that  you  may fight  him again. Here is a saddled horse so
that you may ride away." The Prince burst into tears saying: "Seven
times  now  have  I  been  mercifully  released by my captor. Surely
the  like  of  this  has  never  been  known  in  history.  I should be a
most wicked and ungrateful man if I ever rebelled again."
           The  Prince  then  sent  messengers for his wife, children and
relatives  and  led  them  with  partly  uncovered bodies and bowed
heads  to  the  Marquis's  tent.  They  all  bowed  their  heads  to the
ground   and  the  Prince  said:  "Your  mercy  and  kindness  is  like
that  of  Heaven.  We will never rebel again." Marquis  Chu-ko-liang
then  asked:  "Will  Your  Excellency  now  submit  to my   Emperor's
authority?"  Prince  Meng-kuo  with  the  tears  streaming  down  his
face said:  "I  and  my sons  will  forever remember your mercy  and
for  all  time  will  remain  loyal  to  your  Master  the Emperor."  The
Marquis  then  gave  him another banquet and returned him to  his
Kingdom of Tien to rule again.
          One day soon after the above occurrence the Chief Secretary
in   conversation   with   the   Marquis   remarked :   "Now   that  this
difficult  campaign  is  over  and  Prince  Meng-kuo  restored  to his
kingdom  would  it  not  be advisable to appoint a representative of
the   Emperor   to   live   here   and   maintain  our  prestige  ?"  The
Marquis  replied :  "There  are  three  important  objections  to  your
idea.   Firstly,   if  such  an  official  is  appointed  we  must  leave  a
large  body  of troops here to protect him and maintain his prestige
and  these  troops  will  have  to be paid and fed. Secondly, the Tai
value  their lives very lightly for they are always killing their fathers,
their  brothers  and  one  another. Thirdly, they would not submit to
any  punishment by a Chinese official. If I leave no officials behind
me  when  I  go  I  shall  be  saved  an  infinity of  future trouble. As
they  are  Tai  they can  best manage their own affairs themselves,"

 

                                                          (12)

 

           The   Tai  men  were  not  the  only  ones  who fought for their
freedom,  for  their  women  were  just  the  same. Prince Meng-kuo
had been captured and released five times by the Marquis Chu-ko-
liang.  He  was  now  fighting  the  Marquis  for  the  sixth  time  and
his  troops  had  just been defeated. He was sitting in his tent when
the  fugitives  arrived,  told  him of their defeat and that the Chinese
army  was  close  upon him. He was greatly agitated over the news
and sat thinking of what he could do. In his reverie he heard a light
laugh  behind  him and a voice saying: "Do you call yourself a man
that  you  sit  there  and  do nothing ? If I were not a woman I would
lead  your  troops  against them myself." He looked round and saw
that the speaker was his wife Chu-yong. She was a descendant of
a  prince  who  lived  before  the Emperor Yao B.C. 2300. She was
an expert in throwing knives.
          Upon  this  Prince  Meng-kuo  entrusted  her with one hundred
of  his  bravest  officers and five thousand of his best troops. She led
them through the Yui-kon Pass and attacked Chang-in, the Marquis-
General.  She had five sharp knives strapped  in a case on her back
and  held  a  long  lance  in  her  right  hand.  General Chang-in was
surprised  to  see  a woman leading the Tai troops and closed up to
them. Chu-yong then suddenly retreated and was at once followed
by  Chang-in.  She  turned  round  and  threw  a  knife  at  him which
Stuck  in  his  left  shoulder.  He  fell  from his horse and her soldiers
took  him  prisoner.   Ma-chong, another general, was also captured.
          Prince  Meng-kuo  was  overjoyed  to  see these two prisoners
and  entertained  his  wife  to a banquet. While feasting she ordered
the   two   prisoners  to  be  led  in  with  the  intention  of  beheading
them.   Prince   Meng-kuo   however  strongly  objected.  He  spared
their  lives  because  the  Marquis  had spared his on five occasions,
and   to   execute   them   would   therefore  be  most  ungrateful.  He
proposed  however  to  hold  themprisoner until he had captured the
Marquis; and to this his wife agreed.
          The   defeated   Chinese   troops   returned   and  reported  full
particulars   to   the   Marquis,  who,  the  following  day,  led  out  his

 

                                                           (13)

 

troops  in  person  to  attack.  Chu-yong  met   him  and   engaged  him.
After   a  few  rounds  he   appeared   to   retreat;  Chu-yong  refused  to
follow    him.   The   next   day   the    two    armies    again   fought,   the
Marquis  retreated,  and  again  Chu-yong  refused  to  follow  him; she
Stuck    her   lance   upright   in   the    ground    and    returned    home.
General  Wei  followed   her with his  Chinese troops  and  cursed  her
in  most  abusive  language  calling   her   a   coward.  She  thereupon
turned  her  horse  and  attacked  him   furiously.   He  had   previously
prepared  a  trap  for  her  by  stretching ropes  across  th e  road. Chu-
yong's  horse  stumbled  over  these  ropes,  fell,  and  threw  her. She
was  at  once  captured,  bound  and  led   before   the   Marquis.   Her
troops  made  a  brave  attempt  to  rescue   her   but   were   repulsed.
          The    Marquis  was  sitting  in  his  tent   when   Chu-yong    was
brought  in.  He at once ordered that she  should  be   unbound,  gave
her  a  tent  for  her  private  use  and a  feast  to   dispel  her  fears. He
then sent an officer to Prince  Meng-kuo  to   arrange  an  exchange of
prisoners and  to  exchange  his generals Chang-in and Ma-chong for
Chu-yong.
           The   following   narration   of  an  incident  in  Marquis  Chu- ko-
liang's   campaign   is  of  interest  because  it  tells of the first detailed
and   authentic   use   of   gunpowder   and   cannon  in  warfare.  The
Chinese   classics   relate   that  gunpowder  had  been  used  by  the
Chinese  for  centuries  before this but for fireworks ; and Europe has
always  prided  itself  on  being  the  first  to  use  it  in  warfare  in  the
12th century A. D.
           This   narrative   also   describes   the  use  of  a s mall  cannon
which    fired    many   balls simultaneously. This therefore should be
the  precursor  of  the  French  mitrailleuse invented in the early 19th
century  and  closely  followed  by  the Gatling and Maxim guns. The
idea  therefore  seems to have lain dormant in China for 1700 years.
(226 A.D. !).
             It  is  related  that  during  the  war  carried on by the Marquis
Chu-ko-liang  against Prince Meng-kuo of Tien the former arranged

 

                                                          (14)

 

an   ambush  in a ravine for Meng-kuo's troops. Prince Wu, who was
Prince   Meng-kuo's  general,  was  advancing  to attack. "There was
not  a  single  Chinese  soldier  in  sight.  The  entrance to the ravine
had been blocked with felled trees and rocks, so Prince Wu ordered
his   troops   to  clear  away  the  obstacle.  Suddenly in front of them
several  large heaps of brush wood blazed up and this made Prince
Wu suspicious, so he ordered a retreat.
          "It  was  at once reported to him however that even larger fires
were  now  burning   in  his rear and that gunpowder was exploding
at   the   lower   entrance   to  the  ravine.  As  he  could  see  neither
grass  nor brushwood in the ravine he was not frightened Of the fire
spreading.  When  however the troops tried to escape,  the Chinese
threw   flaming   torches  from the sides of the ravine. The oiled rush
armour   of   Prince  Wu's  troops  soon  caught  fire  and  the flames
spread  rapidly.  The  lighted  torches  set  fire  to  trains  of gunpow-
der  laid  in  bamboo  poles ;  and  these  exploding,  ignited buried
cannon   which  fired  in  all  directions.  Soon the whole ravine was
full  of  flames  and  smoke  and  that  day Prince Wu and his whole
army perished."
          As    the    Marquis   standing   on   a  high  place  watched  the
carnage,   the   smell  of  burning  flesh  was   unbearable.  He  wept
saying:   "Although   this  has  been  necessary  in  order that I might
finish   what   I   set  out  to  do  for  my  Emperor and the country, yet
an  enormous  sacrifice of life has been involved and for that reason
my  life  will  be  cut  short.  I  was obliged to use this last scheme as
all  the  others  had  failed, the enemy refusing to be conquered. My
virtue  and  my  good  name however are blemished because of the
great   sacrifice   of   life.  The  enemy  thought  I  lay  in  ambush  for
them  but  they  were  wrong  for  I  hoisted  my  flag and led the van
myself   and   not   a   man  nor   beast  of  ours has been lost. Every
officer  has  done  his  duty  most  faithfully.  The cannon were each
composed  of  nine  small ones, bound together with strips of brass
and  were  fired  by  trains  of gunpowder. The oiled rush armour of
the enemy though sword and waterproof had to yield to fire.

 

                                                          (15)

 

          Alas ! not one is saved to have a son and my sin is great. All my
success  is  due  to  the  accurate  way  in  which my officers have car-
ried out my orders."
           All   his   officers   and   men   bowed   complimenting  him  and
saying :   "Your   tactics   were   inspired  by  Heaven,  the  very  Gods
and demons cannot stand up against yon."
            From  230  A.  D.  until  649  the  western  part  of  Yunnan was
governed   by   the  six.  hereditary  princes  of  the  Six  Kingdoms  of
Nan  Chao.  They  comprised  an  area  of  four  thousand li from east
to west and two thousand U from north to south.
          The   form  of  government  in  these  six  kingdoms  appears  to
have  been  in  a  very  advanced  state  if  compared  with  Europe of
that time.

The Six Kingdoms of Nun Chao
          As  to  when  these  were  first,  settled  no  date is given. Prince
Hsi-ne-le   ruled   the   land  south  of  the  other  five  kingdoms  from
Yung-chang-fu   to  Yao-chew.  Prince  Ten-shing  resided  at  Ten-c'-
wan-chew.  Prince  Shi-lang  resided  at,  Ch'ien-c'wan-chew. Prince
Tieh-chieh   ruled  at  Li-chiang-fu  (Na-khi).  Prince  Meng-shi  ruled
at,  Ming-nen-fu  now  called  Szu-chuan.  Prince  Lau-kong  ruled at
Lan-kong-hsien.
          The  historian  Yang-rzsi  says:  "The time covered by these six
kingdoms  is  so  longand the records so scarce that I have not been
able to collect any more information."
          In    649   A. D.   Chang-le-chin,   King   of   Ailo,   abdicated   in
favour of Prince Hsi-ne-le, a member of the Meng  family descended
in  direct  line  from  Prince  Jen-kuo.  He  was  a  descendant  of  the
celebrated  Prince  Meng-kuo.  This  Kingdom  of  Ailo  was the most,
southern  one  of  the  Six  Kingdoms.  The  six  princes of Nan Chao
each   ruled  his  own  kingdom  till  731  A.D.  but  the Meng princes
of Ailo were always the most important.
          In  729  Prince  Pi-lo-ke  came  to  the  throne  of  Ailo when he
was  31  years  old.    He  was  soon  dissatisfied however that there

 

                                                           (16)

 

should  be  five  other  princes of rank equal to himself. So he made
a  plan  to  murder  them  and  then  himself to combine the Six King-
doms   into   one   and   rule  over  it  himself.  He  then  enlisted  the
sympathy  of  a  high  official  named  Wong  who  was  stationed at
Ch'ien-c'wan-fu,   Szu-chuan,  and  through  him  suggested  to  the
Emperor  that  if  there  was  only  one  prince  to  deal  with  in  that
part  of  the  country  it  would be of great advantage to the Imperial
government,  as  one  ruler  could  keep much better order than six.
This suggestion received the approval and sanction of the Emperor.
          Prince    Pi-lo-ke    then    sent   invitations   to   the   other   five
Nan  Chao princes and their sons to meet him at Meng-wha-ting on
the  24th  day  of  the  6th  Moon  of  the  year  731  A. D.  in order to
sacrifice   to   the  spirits  of  their  Indian  ancestors.  The  Prince  of
Li-chiang-a Na-Khi   refused  the  invitation.  Prince  U-tsen  of  Ten-
c'wan-chew  at  first  demurred  and  hesitated  but  finally accepted.
His wife Tsi-shan however was suspicious of Prince Pi-lo-ke's inten-
tions  and  persuaded  her  husband  to wear an iron  bracelet as an
amulet  supposed  to  render  him  sword  and   daggerproof. Prince
Pi-lo-ke erected a large hall made of pitch pine  for the celebrations.
The  Princes  and  their sons met and performed  the sacrifice. After
it  Prince  Pi-lo-ke  entertained  them  to  a  feast   in  the  pitch  pine
hall  and  there  made  them  drunk  and  insensible.  After  dark  he
surrounded  the  hall  with  soldiers,  set  it  on  fire  and  the four Tsi
princes and their sons perished in the flames.
          Prince  Pi-lo-ke  then  sent  a  message  to their wives to come
and remove any remains of their husbands' corpses that they could
find.  Tsi-shan  was  the only one who found anything recognizable,
namely, an iron bracelet round a charred arm bone which she took
home with her.
          Pi-lo-ke   then  thought  it  a  good  opportunity to increase his
harem  by  taking  these  four  widows  into  it  Tsi-shan  was a very
beautiful  and  intelligent  woman.  He  sent  a  troop  of  soldiers to
capture  her,  but  she   reached her city in time, shut the gates and

called   upon  her   people   to   save   her.     "Can   I ever forget my

 

 

                                                           (17)

 

husband's   cruel   death   ?  No,  never  !  I will die first." The soldiers
besieged   the   city   and   soon  the  provisions  failed so rather than
give   herself   up,   she  took  poison and died on the 23rd day of the
7th   moon   at   a  place now called Ten-rien-cen which is 20 li north-
east of Ten-c'wan-chew.
          Both  these  historical  events are celebrated   nowadays (1890)
by   local   customs  aud  ceremonies. To this   day on the 24th day of
the   6th   Moon   each  year  all  the  people   in the district round Tali
hold   the   "He-pa-chieh"   or  "Firebrand    Feast".  The farmers in the
evening run round the boundaries   of their fields with lighted torches.
In  some  villages  they erect   long stacks of straw and in the evening
set  fire  to  them.  When    the  fire  is  well  alight  the  young  married
men  try  to  seize  the    topmost flag.  He  who  gets it will have a son
within   the   year   and     be   prosperous.   In   the  city  of  Tali-fu  the
majority  of  the  people    run  about  their  compounds  with a lighted
bundle  of  bamboos    and  this  action  is said to preserve the family
from  sickness    till  the  next  celebrations.  So through the centuries
they  have    given  this  cold blooded murder a lucky significance. In
many of   the villages along the Tali Lake they have societies whose
members celebrate a feast on the 23rd day of the 7th moon, the day
of the tragic end of Tsi-shan.
          From   729  A.D.  till  902  the  Six Kingdoms of Nan Chao were
ruled  by  one king as one kingdom and the kings were all members
of  the  Meng  family.  There  were 13 generations and they ruled for
173 years. The words Nan Chao mean  the Southern Kingdom. The
word Chao means king.
           In   739   some  of the Man-tsi clans rebelled but Prince Pi-lo-ke
Soon reduced them to submission. Taking some of them as prisoners
with  him  he  journeyed  northwards  to  interview  the  Emper or  K'ai-
uien.   The  Emperor  received  him  very  graciously,  bestowed  high
titles   upon  him,  gave  him  many  presents,  and  requested  him  to
build many cities in his kingdom.
            Upon  his  return  to  Nan  Chao  Prince  Pi-lo-ke used his Man-
tsi   prisoners   to   build   the   city   of  T'ai-he.  Its  present  site  is  the
village   of   the  same  name  near  the  Kwan-in-tang  15  li  south  of

 

                                                          (18)

 

Tali-fu.   He   also  built   the   town   of  Tali  which  is  now  the  large
village  of  Shi-chew  40  li  north of the present Tali-fu. The Emperor
K'ai-uein   made   Pi-lo-ke's   son  a  general  and  stationed  him  at
Meng-hwa.
            In  740  a  man  named  Men-chao rebelled and   captured the
cities   of  Ch'ien-c'wan-lau-kong  and  Yong-changfu.    In  741  King
Pi-lo-ke  recaptured  these  cities. In 742 he moved   from Meng-hwa
and  lived at Tai-he. He also built the Hsia and Shan   Kwans calling
them  the Long-tow and Leng-wi : i.e. the dragon's   head and tail. In
746  he  built  the  city  of  Tali-fu.  He  died  in  749    having ruled 20
years and was succeeded by his son Ko-le-fung.
             At  the  time  of  the death of Prince Pi-lo-ke the   government
of  Nan Chao was in an advanced state of efficiency for   those days
as  compared  with  Europe. There were eight ministers   to manage
the  legislation,  civil  and  military affairs, nine executive   officers, a
president  over  the  mandarins,  an  officer  for the census,   military
instructors,  judges,  commissioners  of  works  and of the   Board of
Trade,  three  officers  to take charge, of the government   granaries,
one superintendent of horses and one also for cattle, a commander
in  chief,  a  commissariat  officer and eight, prefects; two bridgadier-
generals,  one  stationed  at Hwn-li-ch'ee Si-l’ wein and the other at
Tong-hai-hsien.   There  were  35  military  officers  in  command  of
troops,  stationed  in various places east of Tali but only two west of
this  city.  Brave  deeds  and  efficient administration were rewarded
by gifts of gorgeous clothes.
           The  Imperial  government  of  China  does   not seem to have
exercised  much  power  either  in  Yunnan  or  in  Szu-chuan till the
12th  century.  The usual order of  things was as follows. Sometimes
the   aboriginal  rulers  of  these  provinces  visited  the  Emperor  by
whom  they  were  received  and  given  presents  and honours. The
Imperial  government  sometimes  sent  a  Resident,  and  a  military
administration was frequently made in order to overawe the natives,
but  such  a  weak  system  of  supervision  had  little  durable effect.

 

                                                          (19)

 

Prime Ko-le-fung.
          He   began  to  rule  in  749   A.D.   when   he   was   36  years old.
The   Emperor   Tien-pao   sent   Li-kiu-ih  to   install   him   as   King  of
Nan Chao.
          In  751  the  Prince  took  his  wife   on   a   visit  to  General  Li-mi.
Whilst on the  journey  the  people complained  against,  two  Chinese
officers  Chang and  Chia  for  base  conduct.  Prince  Ko-le-fung  sent
Captain  Yang  to  inform  the  Emperor  who  refused  to  listen  to   the
charge.  This  enraged Prince Ko-le-fung  so  he  took  affairs  into   his
own hands. He sent General Wang  with  troops  against  Chang   who
was defeated and  afterwards  poisoned  himself.  The  Emperor   then
decided   to   punish   Prince  Ko-le-fung  and  sent 80,000  men under
Generals    Suen    and    Chang    for   that   purpose.   This  frightened
Prince Ko-le-fung so he met these officers on the way,  acknowledged
his   fault   and   requested  them  to  disband  their  troops.  This   they
refused  to  do  and  the  Chinese  army  entered  Yunnan.  Prince  Ko-
le-fung  then  sent  two  officers to negotiate,  but General Suen  made
them  prisoners  and  forwarded them to the  Emperor. General  Wang
with  several  thousand  troops  was  sent  to attack Tali as Prince  Ko-
le-fung  despatched  his  son Fung-cia-ih and General Twan to  resist
the Imperial army.
            A  great  battle  was fought near Hsia-kwan, the Chinese being
badly  defeated  and  60,000  of  their  troops  being  killed. Ko-le-fung
then  caused  an  enormous grave pit (a wang sai-fen or myriad tomb)
to  be  dug  with  this  inscription  beside it, "The Tomb of the Chinese".
This   grave   is   still   to   be   seen   near   the   east   entrance  to  the
Hsia-kwan.
          In  the  last  moon  of  753  the  Emperor  T'ien-pao  tried  to  buy
over   Prince   Ko-le-fung.   He  sent  Commissioners  Ih  and  Lo  with
costly   embroidered   silk   robes   and  various  presents,  styled  him
brother  and  gave him a gold seal. He also sent robes to Fung-cia-ih
and  made  him  a  general.  In  th   6th moon of 755 A.D. the Emperor
T'ien-pao  sent  another  army  under General Li and Ho to subjugate

 

                                                          (20)

 

Nan   Chao.   Prince  Ko-le-fung  again sent  Fung-cia-ih and General
Twan  against  them  and  again  the  Imperial  army  was annihilated.
The   Chinese   historians   estimate  that  the  losses  of  the  Imperial
troops  in  their  various  battles  against  Prince  Ko-le-fung  were not
less than 2,000,000 men.
           In   765   Fung-cia-ih   built   the   city  of  Yunnan-fu.  The  walls
of  this city still stood in 1383 when they were rebuilt.
           Prince Ko-le-fung died in the year 799  having  ruled  30  years.
His  son  Fung-cia-ih  died  before  him  so  his  grandson Ih-me-su-in
succeeded  him.  When  Prince  Ko-le-fung  so  successfully threw off
the   Imperial   yoke  he  set  up  a  large  tablet  to  commemorate  the
event.   The   draft   o  the  inscription  was  drawn  up  by  Ch'en-hwei
and   engraved   on   the   statue   by  U-shih.  This  tablet  of  stone  is
probably  the  largest  in  South  China.  It  is  still  to  be  seen  on  the
road   from   Hsia-kwan   to   Tali  about  8  li  from  Hsia-kwan  on  the
west  side  of  the  road.  The  tablet  has  fallen  and  now  lies  on  its
side.  It  is  engraved  on  both sides and many characters can still be
deciphered.  The  local  name  for  it  is Mau-chow-pei;  i.e. the Tablet
of the Southern Princes.

 

Prince Ih-me-su-in.
          He   was   24   years   old   when   he   began  to  reign.  Shortly
after  coming  to  the  throne  he  raised  an  army  of  30,000  men to
attack  Szu-chuan.  The  Emperor  sent  General  Li  to resist him but
he  was  badly  defeated.  In  784  he  divided  Nan  Chao  into  nine
provinces,  the  area  of  his  kingdom  at  that time being roughly the
same as that of Yunnan at the present time.
           At   about   this   date   he   decided  to  join  his  kingdom  with
China.  This  greatly  enraged  the  Tu-fan  or Tibetans who rebuked
him and persuaded him from doing so.
          The   Emperor  appointed  one  Kao  as Resident of Nan Chao.
In   794   A.D.  Kao  was  appointed  governor.  In  795  the  Tibetans
waged  war  against  Nan  Chao.  They fought a battle near the river

 

                                                          (21)

 

bridge and brass column which marked the boundary  between  Nan
Chao   and   Tibet   about  250  li  north  of   Likiang-fu.   The  Tibetans
were  thoroughly  defeated,  a  great  number  of  prisoners and much
spoil   being   captured.   Prince   Ih-me-su-in   then   sent  his  brother
Prince Tse and an officer to the Emperor with a despatch announcing
his   victory   and  also  forwarded  a  map  of  the  conquered  country
which  the  Emperor  Chen-tien acknowledged sending in return gold
and silver seals.
          During   the   eight   years   following   796   Prince   Ih-me-su-in
waged  continuous  warfare with the Tibetans on his northern frontier.
He  obtained  help  from  Governor  Kao  and  severely   defeated  the
Tibetans.   He   captured   five   Tibetan   Princes   and  sent  them  as
prisoners to the Imperial court.
          He   died  in  the  7th  Moon  of  809  having  reigned  30  years.
The   Emperor   U-ien  sent  an  officer  to  sacrifice  to  his  spirit.  His
son Su-in-ke-cwien succeeded him.

 

809 A.D. Prince Su-in-ke-cwien.
          He  was  31  years  old  when  he   came  to  the  throne.  Upon
his  coronation,  the  Emperor  U-ien-he  gave him a gold seal and a
very   high   honorific   title.   It   was  during  his  reign  at  Nan  Chao
that   Yunnan-fu   was   called   the   Eastern  Capital  and  Tali-fu the
Western Capital.
          He   died  on  the  11th  moon  of  809  having  ruled  only  one
year and was succeeded by his son C'wien-long-chen.

 

810. A.D. Prince Civien-long-chen.
          He   was   12  years  old  when  he  came  to  the  throne.  In the
following year he used 3,000 ounces of gold to make three Buddhas
which   he   placed   in   a   temple   at   Tali-fu.   In   815   he  attacked
Kia-ting-chew, Szu-chuan, and was unsuccessful as  his troops were
scattered  being  frightened  by  a  vision  of  troops  fighting in the air.
The  inhabitants  afterwards  built  a  temple  in  Kia-ting-chew  called
the Fu-t'ien-shonmiao to commemorate this event.

 

                                                           (22)

 

          Prince  C'wien-long-chen  grew  up  into  a  very  wicked  man
and  at  his  19th  year  was  murdered by one of his officials named
Wang-kia and was succeeded by his brother C wien-li.

 

817 A.D. Prince C'wien-li.
          He was 15 years old when he succeeded.
          In  820  the  Emperor  U-ien-be  forgave  Wang-kia  for  murder-
ing Prince  C'wien-long-chen  but  reduced  him.  several  grades  in
rank.
          In  821  Prince  C´   wien-li  repaired  the  San-lali-si the  Three
Pagodas  northwest  of  Tali.  During   that  year  there  was  a  great
rise in the waters of the  lake,  as  had  been  predicted  many  years
before, caused, it was said, by an enormous serpent or dragon. The
Prince   offered   a   large   reward  to  anyone  who  would  kill  it.  A
man  named  Twan-ci  undertook  the  task.  He bound knives round
his   body  with  the  points  projecting  outward  and jumped into the
lake.   He  was  promptly   swallowed  by  the  dragon  and  the  high
waters  at  once  subsided.   The monster was caught and killed and
Twan-ci's  body  extracted  from  its  stomach.  Prince C´ wien-li then
had   Twan-ci's   corpse   buried  with  great  honour  and  erected  a
pagoda  over  his  grave.  In  the Dragon Temple at the lake, east of
Tali,   there   is   a   stone  tablet  recording  the  event. The dragon's
bones  were  burnt  in  a pagoda erected on the spot. It is called the
Ling-tali   and   is   situated   in  the  rear  of  Yang-pi  village  at  the
Hsia-kwan.It is still standing about 3 li west of the road to Tali.
          The   Emperor Chang-kui gave Prince C´ wien-li  a gold seal in
825 A. D.  In  the   same  year  Prince  C´  wien-li  died   in Yunnan-fu,
having ruled for 8 years. He was succeeded by his brother Fong-yeh.

 

825 A.D. Prince Fong-yeh.
          He   came   to   the   throne   when   only   7   years   old.   The
Emperor  Chang-kin  sent  an officer called Wai to represent him at
the  Coronation.  In  the  same  year  the  work  of  building  temples
and restoring the Three Pagodas was completed.    These pagodas

 

                                                            (23)

 

still remain and also the two pagodas built originally  in  631  A. D.
They  stand  on  the east side of the  Wu-hwa-shan  in  Yunnan-fu.
These also he repaired.
          In  827  his  mother  became  a  Buddhist  nu n and  she  and
others  of her rank lived in the San-ta-si. She  used  5,000  ounces
of  silver  to  decorate a room in the temple with  little  Buddhas . In
this  same  year  Prince  Fong-yeh  sent  all the  Taoist  priests  out
of  his  kingdom of Wan Chao. Buddhism now  had  a  tremendous
revival  and  large  sums  of  money were devoted  to  the  temples.
It is probable that about this date the very famous   temples on  the
Chi  mountains  were  built  (100  li  north-east of   the  lake)  which
are visited each year by many Tibetan pilgrims.
           A   Chinese   mandarin   named   Tu,   stationed   at   Chen-tn
S/Ai-chuan, treated his Chinese troops so badly that many deserted
and took refuge at Nan Chao. Prince Fong-yeh sent General Wang-
kia  with  his  army  to  investigate.  They  were  attacked  by  Tu  but
Wang-Kia  defeated  him,  held  him  for  a time and then returned to
Nan  Chao  with  many  prisoners  and much spoil. Prince Fong-yeh
then wrote to the EmperorT’ ai-he in 831 advising him to punish  Tu.
The  Emperor  degraded  Tu  and  appointed  General  Li-teh  in his
place.   Some   of  General  Li-teh's  soldiers  ...  ( insulted? )  Prince
Fong-yeh.  So  in  the  5th  moon  of  832  he  led  400  soldiers  into
Szu-chuan  to  attack  General  Li-teh.  From  this  dateand onwards
until  1600  there  is  frequent  mention  of military operation against
the Chan (Cham ?) who then occupied what is now Annam.
          Prince  Fong-yeh  appears  to  have  studied  the  interests  of
his  people.  He drained  large  areas  of  marsh  land  into  the lake
In  one  place  in  the Li-hu ravine about 10 li south of Tali he built a
strong  dam  forming  a  large  reservoir  so  that  in  dry  season the
water  could  be  led  off  by  canals  to  irrigate  the  rice  fields. This
work    still    exists    and   its   local   name   is   "Kao-no''   i.e.   "The
High Pool."
          In  the  6th  moon  of  843  Prince  Fong-yeh  was very anxious
because of a long draught which caused his people much suffering.

 

                                                          (24)

 

He  went  to  an  old  Buddhist monk for advice. The monk reproved
him   for   his  excessive  love  of  wine  and  women and told him to
repent.   He   at   once   amended   his  ways  and  rain  then  fell  in
abundance.
          In  859  Prince  Fong-yeh  sent  help  to  the  King of Burma to
assist   him   in  resisting  an  attack  made  on  Burma  by  the  Lion
Kingdom   (possibly   the   Mon   Kingdom   of   Siam).   In   the  Han
Dynasty  Burma  was  called  "T' an '' and during the T' ang Dynasty
" Piao ".
          The   year   860   A.D.  was  very  eventful.  Governor  Li-teh  of
Szu-chuan invaded Nan Chao with an army of 100,000 men. Prince
Fong-yeh   routed   that   army  near  Ch'ien-chang-fu  in  Szu-chuan.
Soon  after  this  General  Li-teh  was  beheaded  by  Imperial  order.
          About  this  time  some  Imperial  troops in Szu-chuan rebelled,
joined  the  Tibetans  and  attacked  Nan  Chao.  General  Wang-kia
fought   them   near   the   iron   bridge  on  the  Tibetan  frontier  and
slaughtered 10,000 Chinese.
           After  a  very  useful  reign  of  35 years Prince Fong-yeh died
in   Yunnan-fu   in  860  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Shi-leng.
Because  Prince  Shi-leng was only in his 16th year General Wang-
kia  acted  as  Regent.  Prince  Fong-yeh  in  859  had sent General
Twan-seng  to  help  the  Burmese  against  an  attack  by  the  Lion
Kingdom.  The  Burmese  with  this assistance were successful and
on  General  Twan-seng's  setting  out  to  return  to  Nan Chao they
presented  him  with  a  gold  Buddha.  General  Wang-kia  went  to
welcome Twan-seng on his return from Burma and as a compliment
to  him  worshipped  his  golden  Buddha.  Whilst  in  the  act  of  pre-
sentation General Twan-seng beheaded General Wang-kia because
he  had  murdered  Prince  C´  wien-leng-chen  in 817 A. D. This was
a   very  critical  time  for  Prince  Shi-leng  for  an  influential  minister
named  Chen-nai-i  tried  to  murder  him  but  did  not  succeed.

 

860 A.D. Prince Shi-leng.
          The  mother  of  Prince  Shi-leng  was  a  fisherman's  daughter
of  extraordinary  beauty.    An  account  of  his conception is given in

 

                                                          (25)

 

the  "History"  but  is  not  fit  to  be  recorded. The Emperor Ta-chang
proposed  to  give  Prince  Shi-leng  a  wife  from  the Imperial House-
hold,  but  when  he  heard  of  the low birth of the Prince's mother, he
consulted soothsayers and had Prince Shi-leng's future forecast and
after   that   refused   to   send   the   lady.   At   this  time  the  Prince's
mother had become a nun.
          During   the  Meng  Dynasty  at  Nan Chao several of the Kings
had   sent   tribute  to  the  Imperial  government,  but  Prince  C'wien-
long-chan  and  Fong-yeh  had  not  done  so  and neither did Prince
Shi-leng.   The   Emperor   therefore   sent  an  army  to  demand  the
tribute   but   Prince  Shi-leng  attacked  and  thoroughly  defeated  it.
In  863  he  fought  the  Chinese  in  Szu-chuan  and  there he took a
stone   Buddha   very   much   revered   by   the   natives,  as  a  prize.
Soon   after   this   great   discontent   reigned   amongst   his   troops
because  the  stores  of  food  had  failed  and general desertion was
threatened.   Prince   Shi-leng   sought   the   advice   of   a.  Buddhist
monk   called   Song  who,  by  invoking  the  sand  of  the  river  bank,
changed  it,  into  rice  and  the  water  of  the  river into wine, so each
man was filled to repletion.
            During   one   of   his  excursions   into  Szu-chuan  one  of  his
generals   named   Tong-chon  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  Chinese.
Prince   Shi-leng  then  requested  the  Emperor  to  order  his release;
and,  on this being done, an embassy was sent in 870 to the Emperor
to thank him.
            In   871   he   made   another  raid  upon  Szu-chuan  and  after
taking  several  cities  attacked  Chen-tu.  Governor Lu sent, a party of
officers   to   try  and  arrange  matters,  and  meanwhile  the  Emperor
sent   Generals  Jen  and  Seng  with  an  army  to  assist  him.  These
officers  attacked Prince Shi-leng and repulsed him.
           In  874  he  did  some  fighting  in  Kweichow  and again in Szu-
chuan.  His  general  named  Hwang  was  defeated  and returned to
Nan  Chao  for  more  men. This time he sent an officer named Wang
with  forty  men  to  Governor  Lu  conveying  a  letter to be forwarded

 

                                                           (26)

 

to  the  Emperor.  Governor  Lu  imprisoned  38  of  the  party.  Prince
Shi-leng with his army then retreated to Nan Chao.
          In 876 he again attacked Yah-Choo but Governor Kao repulsed
him  killing  fifty  of  his  men,  retook  the  cities  and  drove the Prince
down  the  Yangtse  River.  In  877  A.D.  Prince Shi-leng received an
Imperial  officer  with peace negotiations but he would only negotiate
with   a  Buddhist  monk  as  an  intermediary.  Governor  Kao  sent  a
monk  with  proposals  which  however  were  not  acceptable.  In this
year the Prince made his last attack on Szu-chuan and was defeated
by Governor Kao.
           He   fell   sick   with  a  virulent  fever  and  died  in  the  Kni-tsiu
Temple  in  Ueh-shi-ting  in  Szu-chuan  after  an  eventful reign of 18
years.  He  was  succeeded  by his son Leng-shwen. Prince Shi-leng
after  his  death  was  given  the posthumous title of Emperor and this
was   done  to  all  the  following  Kings  of  Nan  Chao  for  nearly  44
years  until  Kublai  Khan  conquered  Nan  Chao  in  1253.  The  title,
however    was   never   given   to   them   during   their   life   time   so
evidently the Emperor of China did not object (?)

 

878 A.D. Prince Leng-shwen.
          He   was  17  years  old  when  he  began  to  rule.  Fearing  the
Emperor's  displeasure  he  sent  an embassy to sue for peace and it
was   granted.  In  880  he  wrote  a  letter  to  the  Emperor  using  an
improper  address.  This  caused  much  amusement  at  the Imperial
Court   when   it   was   read  and  a  struggle  occurred  between  the
members  of  the  Court  and  the  embassy  which  objected to being-
laughed at.   The Emperor had to part them.
           There  was  a  great  deal  of  trouble  at Nan Chao at this time
and,  as  a politic move, the Emperor, Cheng-he, sent a very friendly
letter  to  Prince  Leng-shwen.  In  884  the  Emperor sent a princess
of the Royal Household as a wife.
          The  next  year  King  Chi-uien  suggested  that  he  would also
provide    him    with   a   princess   for   a  wife.   Prince   Leng-shwen
approved  of  the  idea  and  sent  three  of his chief officials to escort

 

                                                            (27)

 

her  to  Nan  Chao.  Emperor  Kao  hearing of this sent a secret letter
by   fast   couriers   to   King   Chi-uein   telling  him  not  to  allow  the
princess  to  leave  and  advising  him  to  poison  the  three  officials.
King   Chi-uein   received  the  officials  with  great  courtesy,  invited
them to a banquet and then poisoned them.
          In  887  the  Hisia  and  Shan Kwans were greatly damaged by
a serious earthquake,
          Prince  Leng-shwen  was  a  most sensual and dissipated man,
useless  as  a  ruler,  leaving  the  whole of the administration of Nan
Chao  entirely  to  his  officials.  He  was therefore greatly disliked by
his  people.   In   898  he  murdered  several  of  his  servants,  being
instigated  to  do so by some of his concubines. He was hated by his
servants  and one of them named Yang murdered him at Yunnan-fu.
He  reigned  for  20  years,  was  given  posthumous  honours  as an
Emperor and was succeeded by his son Shwen-hwa.

 

898 A.D. Prince Shwen-hwa.
             He  was  21  years  old  when  he  came to the throne. In 900
the  Emperor  Kang-ming  established five colleges in Nan Chao. In
the  11th  moon  of this year Prince Shwen-hwa executed Yang and
all his family to avenge his father's murder.
           In  901  he  cast  a  very  large  figure  of  Kwan-in sixteen feet
high   and   sent   Chen-nai   to   collect   copper  for  it  from  sixteen
different mines.   He ruled for five years and died in 903.
          Prince   Shwen-hwa  left  a  small  son  only  eight  months old
to   succeed   him   and   this   child  fell  a  victim  to  court  intrigues.
Cheng-mai-su,   a   cruel  and  ambitious  man,  took  charge  of  the
government  of  Nan Chao. He advised Prince Shwen-hwa's widow
to leave the infant prince under his charge until he was of age  and
able  to  govern.  She  complied  and  gave  the  child  into  his care.
Chang-mai-su  then  injured  the  child's  testicles by crushing them.
As   it   then   cried   unceasingly   the   mother  asked  for  its  return
suspecting  foul  play.  That  same  evening   the  infant  prince died.
Cheng-mai-su   then   became   frightened   that  the  mother  would

 

                                                           (28)

 

revenge  herself  on  him  so,  to save himself and in order to secure
the  throne of Nan Chao for himself, he gathered some soldiers and
murdered   all  the  Meng  family  and  their  relations  that  he  could
find.  In  all  he  murdered  over  800  of  Meng  family  beneath "The
Five  Glory"  tower  in  Tali-fu.  This  ended  the  Meng  family  which
had  ruled  at  Nan Chao for 225 years from Prince Hsi-me-le in 694
A.D. until the death of Prince Shwen-hwa in 903.
             There were 13 generations of the Meng Dynasty.

 

903 A.D. The Ta-chang-me-kuo Dynasty of Nan Chao.
           This     dynasty   was   founded  by  Cheng-mai-su.   He  was  a
Chinese and    formerly held office at Ueh-chew Szu-chuan. Because
of  his  evil  deeds and peculations he had to flee to Nan Chao where
he obtained employment under Prince Leng-shwen. He soon gained
influence   and   power  under  that  prince  who,  as  a  ruler,  did  not
bother  to  control  Cheng-mai-su.  During  Prince Shwen-hwa's reign
he  was  appointed  First  Grand  Secretary. Cheng-mai-su began his
reign  in  the  11th  moon  of  903  A.D.  being  42 years old. He made
Tali-fu his capital.
           In   910   he   built   a  temple  in  San-tah-su  and  decorated  it
with  10,000  Buddhas  as  a  thank  offering  for having exterminated
the House of Meng.
           He  died  in  the  4th  moon  of  911  having  ruled  8  years and
was succeeded by his son Ren-ming.

 

911 A.D. Prince Ren-ming.
           He was 22 years old when he came to the throne.
           In  913  he  made  an  attack  on  Szu-chuan  but  was severely
defeated and lost several thousand soldiers in the attempt.
           In   the   8th  moon  of  926  an  abscess  formed   in  his  ear.  It
was  excruciatingly  painful  so  that  it  nearly  drove  him mad and at
such   times   he  would  kill  one  of  his  servants.  He  died  from  the
abscess in the same year. He ruled for 16 years and was succeeded
by his son Long-tang.

 

                                                          ( 29)

 

926 A.D. Prince Long-tang.
          He was 12 years old when he came to the throne.
          In   929   General   Yan-kan-chepg   of   Tong-c'wab  killed  him
and  made  Chao-shan-cheng  King  of Nan Chao. General Yan-kan-
cheng  was  a  grandson of Cheng-mai-su who started the Ta-chang-
no-kuo  Dynasty  in 903. This dynasty consisted of three generations
and only ruled for 26 years.

 

929 A.D. The Ta-t'ien-shing Dynasty.
          Chao-shan-cheng  was  born  of  very  poor  parents.  On  one
occasion  when  he  was  gathering  firewood on the hill side, being
very  tired,  he  fell  asleep.  He  dreamt  he  saw a god who told him
to  awake  as  he  had gathered the firewood for him. He awoke and
saw   ten   bundles   of   firewood   lying   beside   him.   He   became
frightened,  ran  home  and  told his mother. She did not believe him,
so  took  him  by  the hand and went to the place where he had slept
and  there  saw  the  ten  bundles of firewood lying on the ground. At
once  on  returning home she consulted a soothsayer who told her it
was  a  very  good  omen. Chao-shan-cheng then became an official
under Cheng-mai-su. On one occasion when carrying out his official
duties   a   large   stone  dropped  from  the  sky  and  broke  into  two
halves.  Upon  one  piece  his  name was inscribed in red letters and
there  was  an  inscription  saying  that  one  day he would be king of
Nan Chao.  General  Yan-kan-cheng  heard  this  story and believed
in  the  omen  so  he  murdered  Prince  Long-tang and placed Chao-
shan-cheng on the throne.
          In  930  Prince  Chao-shan-cheng  began to treat General Yan-
kan-cheng   with   great   coolness  and  ignored  him.  This  want  of
gratitude  angered  the  General  who consulted with his friends and
then murdered Prince Chao-shan-cheng  after he had only ruled for
ten  months.  He  then  seized  the  throne  for  himself  and  ruled as
King   of   Nan   Chao   calling   his   dynasty  the  Ta-i-ming  Dynasty
which lasted only until 937.

 

                                                           (30)

 

930 A.D. The Ta-i-mina.
           Prince Yan-kan-cheng was a native of Ping-C´ wan-chew. He
was  an illegitimate son of Prince Leng-shwen of the Meng Dynasty.
He  held  office  at Ten-c'wan-chew under Prince Cheng-mai-su. He
was  a  bad ruler and was hated both by the officials and the people
of his Kingdom.
           In  935  General  Twan-Ssu-ping  of  Tcng-hai-hsien  rebelled
and  led  an army against Prince Yan-kan-cheng who was defeated
and  fled  to  escape  capture.  General  Twan-Ssu-ping  then  made
himself  King  of Nan Chao and changed the name of the dynasty to
"Tali".  The  Nan  Chao  Yeh-sih  states  that  Prince  Twan-ssu-ping
eventually  captured  Prince Yan-kan-cheng and did not kill him but
forgave  him.  The  latter  then  entered  a  monastery and became a
Buddhist monk.
             The  Twan  family  was  related to the Meng family and under
that  dynasty  had  been generals and high officers of state for many
generations.  Thus  it  could  also  trace its descent from King Asoka.
Prince  Twan-ssn-ping  was  the 6th generation  after Twan-chien, a
general of the Meng Dynasty of Nan Chao who fought under Prince
Pi-lo-ke  and  thrice  defeated  the Chinese troops of the Emperor of
the Han Dynasty in 525 A.D. near Tali Lake.

 

936 A.D. The Tali Dynasty.
            This   dynasty   had   fourteen   rulers,  holding  the  throne  of
Nan Chao from 936 to 1236.
           The  account  of  the  conception  of  Prince  Twan-ssu-ping is
given  in  the  "History"  but  it  is  too  indecent  and  too ridiculous to
record  here.  He had an eventful and adventurous life. He defeated
Prince  Yan-kan-cheng's brother at the Haei Kwan with the greatest
ease  and  then  captured  Tali-fu.  He  ascended  the  throne of Nan
Chao  in  938  being then 44 years of age. He freely rewarded those
who helped him to gain the throne. He was a very devoted Buddhist,
was  continually  building  temples  and  decorating them with brass
Buddhas.

 

                                                          ( 31)

 

           He died in 944 having ruled six years and was succeeded by
his son Si-in.

 

944    A.D. Prince Si-in.
          He  came  to  the  throne  in  944. It was soon evident however
that  as a most devoted Buddhist he was more fitted for a monastery
than  to  rule  the  turbulent  kingdom  of  Nan  Chao. He ruled about
a  year  and  then  abdicated  in  favour  of  his  nephew Si-liang. He
then entered a monastery and became a monk.

           It  was  to  this  period  that  the  temples  of  San-ta-si owed so
much   of   their   magnificence.   Nowadays,   that   immense  site  is
covered  with  a great heap of ruins. The Three Pagodas still remain
however.  The  Great  Pagoda  is  square  and  is built of huge bricks
accurately cemented together.
            The  base  is  11 yards on each side. There are sixteen caves
tapering  from  the  tenth  cave  up  to  the  pinnacle.  At  the  top  is a
spiral  staircase  surmounted  by  a huge globe gilded with gold leaf.
The  sides  are  thickly  plastered  and  are decorated with hundreds
of  niches  containing small Buddhas. This pagoda is about 300 feet
high.  After  a  walk  through  the  ruins  one comes  to the remains of
the  large  brass  Kwan-in (already mentioned).  The head is missing.
The  trunk  is  six  feet  high,  across  the  breast  it is four feet and the
arm stumps are one foot wide.


945    A.D. Prince Si-liang.
            He  ruled  for  seven  years and  was  succeeded  by  his  son
Si-tong.   He died in 953.


953 A.D. Prince Si-tong.
           He  ruled  for  17  years  and  died  in 970. His son Shu-shwen
succeeded him.


970 A.D. Prince Shu-shwen.
            In   978  General Wang-chaun-pin  after  restoring  peace  in
Szu-chuan  made   a  map  of  Nan  Chao  and  presented  it  to  the
Emperor   for   him   to  fix  the frontiers  between  it  and  Szu-chuan.

 

                                                           (32)

 

The  Emperor  laid his jade axe on the line made by the Ta-tu River
and  said  that  all  the  land  beyond this river should remain under
the rule of the Southern Princes of Nan Chao.
           Prince  Shu-shwen  died  in  986  having  ruled 16 years and
was succeeded by his son Shu-yin.

 

986 A.D. Prince Shu-yin.
           There   is   no  other  record  of  his  reign.  He  died  in  1010
having  ruled  24  years  and  was  succeeded  by his son Shu-lien.
1010 A.D. Prince Shu-lien.
            He ruled for 13 years and died in 1023 and was succeeded
by his nephew Shu-long.


1023 A.D. Prince Shu-long.
             After  a rule of  four years he became a Buddhist monk and
abdicated in favour of his nephew.

 

1027 A.D. Prince Shu-chen.
            He  was  a  very  sensual  and  licentious prince. He made a
gorgeous flower garden in the grounds of his palace in Yunnan-fu.
He  kept  a  large  harem  with  many  concubines and encouraged
prostitutes to frequent the palace grounds to dance and drink.
           His  officials  and  the  people  became so disgusted with his
rule  that  they forced him to abdicate in favour of his cousin Si-lien.

 

1045 A.D. Prince Si-lien.
             A   Man-tsi  prince  named  Beng-kao  living   near  the  Annam
frontier   rebelled  and  styled himself king  of  these   regions.  One  of
Prince  Si-lien's  generals, called Swai  joined  by  a   Chinese  official,
Governor   Ti-a,  attacked  Beng-kao  and   defeated   him.  He  fled  to
Tali-fu to sue for mercy; Prince Si-lien refused  to  grant  it,  beheaded
him and sent his head to the Emperor  Hwang-yeh.  In  1064  another
rebellion occurred headed by a person called Yang. A general called
Kao  quelled  this  rebellion  and  as  a  reward  received  a present of
land at Hong-si.

 

                                                           (33)

 

             In  1076  Prince  Si-lien  became  a  Buddhist  monk  and  abdi-
cated in favour of his son.

 

1076 A.D. Prince Lien-i.
             He   sent  tribute  to  the  Emperor  Shi-ming.  In  the  5th  year
of his  reign  in 1081 he was murdered by Yang-i-chen who usurped
the   throne   and   reigned  as  King  of  Nan  Chao  for  four  months.
General  Kao  then  raised  troops in the eastern part of the kingdom,
put  them  in  charge  of  his  son Kai-shen-tai, attacked Yang-i-chen
and  killed  him.  He  then  placed  Shee-hwei,  a  nephew  of Prince
Lien-i,  on  the  throne.  Descendants  of  Marquis Kao are still living
in Yong-he-peh-ting.   They are Tu-si or Hereditary Mandarins.

 

1081    A.D. Prince Shee-hwei.
           He  made  Marquis  Kao, his chief counsellor, Minister of State
and  gave  him  the  title of Marquis. In this year there was an eclipse
of   the   sun   and   stars   were   visible  in  the  daytime.  The  Prince
regarded  this  as  a  sign  that he should no longer reign, so he abdi-
cated in favour of Si-lien's grandson Chen-ming.

 

 

1082    A.D. Prince Chen-ming.
            He   was   a   very   bad   king   and  useless  as  a  ruler.  This
disgusted his people, not only against himself but  against his whole
house.  The  officials  and  people  therefore  forced  him to abdicate
after  13  years  of unpopular rule. He became a Buddhist monk and
Marquis Kao-shen-tai was elected king in his stead.
           With   the   abdication   of   Prince   Chen-ming   the  Ta-i-ming
Dynasty  ended after lasting 158 years with 14 generations of rulers
of Nan Chao.

 

1094 A.D. Ta-cheng Dynasty.
            Prince   Kao-shen-tai  was  a  native  of  Tali-fu.  As  he  grew
up  he  showed  great  intelligence and obtained an official position
under  Prince Si-lien.   As  related  he  rose  to high rank and favour

 

                                                           (34)

 

both, with that and succeeding princes, also being much loved and
respected by the people.
          In  1097  he  fell  sick  and  died. Just before he died he called
his  son  Kao-tai-ming  to him and said: "Because of the great weak-
ness  of  the  Twan  family  I  was  elected by the people to rule Nan
Chao.  Now,  after  my  death  do  not  take the throne but choose  a
member  of  the  Twan  family  to  succeed  me.  Do  not  forget  and
choose  carefully."  Kao-tai-ming  took  an  oath  to  do  as his father
asked  him.  Shortly  after  this  Prince  Kao-shen-tai  died  and Kao-
tai-ming  selected  Chen-shwen  to succeed him. He was brother to
Chen-ming.

 

1097 A.D. The Later or Second Tali Dynasty.
            After Prince Chen-shwen came to the  throne  he   made   Kao-
tai-ming  his  Grand  Secretary  of State  and  Chief   Counsellor.  He
also  made  Kao-tai-ming's  brother   Kao-tai-uien   his   Premier.  He
abolished  the  system of corvee which had been  in  force  from  the
earlier times.   He built the city of T'su-hsieng-fu.
             In  1104  he  sent Kao-tai-uien   to  the  Emperor  Tseng-ming
with  despatches  and  eighty  gold  spear heads  as  a  present  and
mentioned  a number of Nan Chao  families  that  he  recommended
should receive Imperial honours. Burma and  two  other  states  sent
tribute to Prince Chen-shwen which  included  white  elephants  and
a large variety of spices.
             In  1104  a comet was seen in the  west  and  much  sickness
followed.
             In 1109 he became a Buddhist monk and abdicated in favour
of his son Ho-u after a reign of 12 years.

 

1109 A.D. Prince Ho-u.
             In   the  7th  moon  of  1109  all  the  countries  adjacent to the
Kingdom  of  Nan  Chao  sent tribute to Prince Ho-u comprising gold,
silver,   precious   stones,   elephants,   a   rhinoceros,  together  with
thousands of horses and head of cattle.

 

                                                          (35)

 

            In  1111  a  serious  earthquake  destroyed  16   temples. The
Man-tsi  rebelled  but  were  subdued  by  Kao-tai-ming.  In 1116 the
King  of  Burma  sent  tribute  of  gold  and  silver flowers,  elephants
and  a  rhinoceros.  In  1117  the Emperor Chen-he sent Councillors
Cheng   and   Wang   to   Yunnan-fu   with  despatches  and  friendly
messages  bestowing an Imperial title on Kao-tai-ming ; but he died
soon  after  receiving  it  and  foul  play  was suspected. In this same
year  Prince  Ho-u sent his son Tsi-tseng with tribute to the Emperor
Chen-he who in return bestowed many honourable titles on him.
             In  the  1st  moon  of  1119  a  comet  appeared in the sky. In
the  3rd  moon  of that year the people of Ming-uen-fu in Szu-chuan
rebelled  and  drove  back  the  troops sent to quell them. Then they
attacked  and  captured Yunnan-fu and killed Kao-ming-tsieng who
was  governor  there.  During  the  5th  moon  of  1126  there was a
transit  of  Venus  across  the  moon. In the same month a great fire
occurred in Yunnan-fu destroying 3,900 houses. A dense fog set in
on the 11th day of the 3rd moon of 1147 and continued for 24 days
and during this time the sun was never seen once. In Prince Ho-u's
old  age  his  son was anxious to rule, various troubles broke out in
different   parts   of   the   Kingdom;  so  being  tired  of  reigning  he
abdicated  in favour of his son Chien-shin and became a Buddhist
monk after a very useful reign of 39 years.

 

1148 A.D. Prince Chien-shin.

           He   appears   to   have  had  a very peaceful reign. After ruling
for   25   years   he became a Buddhist monk and abdicated in favour
of his son Ci-shein  and sought a pleasant retirement in a monastery.

 

1173 A.D. Prince Ci-shein.
            His  reign  commenced  with  much  trouble owing to officious-
ness   on   the  part  of  his  ministers  and quarrels between them. In
1195  he  repaired  the  walls  of the Hsia and Shan Kwans. He died
in  the  year  1201 having ruled 28 years and was succeeded by his
son Ci-hsiang.

 

                                                           (36)

 

1201 A.D. Prince Ci-hsiang.
          He   set  out  with  an  army  to  subdue   the   Man-tsi but owing
to  the   flooded  state  of  the  country  was    compelled  to  return. In
1237  he   raised  Kao-long  to  the  position  of  Hereditary Prince of
Yunnan  and   gave  Kao-kwang  the  rank  of   general.  During  this
reign many brilliant men rose to prominence and the administration
of  Nan  Chao  was  very good. The harvests were good, the people
prosperous and peace ruled  throughout  the kingdom. Towards the
end  of  his  life  however  he  wished  for  retirement and a peaceful
end so became a Buddhist monk and abdicated in the year 1239 in
favour of his son Hsian-hsin.

 

1239 A.D. Prince Hsian-hsin.
            About    this   time  the  Mongol  Emperor   Hsien-hseng  deter-
mined to subdue the Kingdom of Nan Chao  and bring it completely
under  his  rule.  He  therefore  sent  an  army to take Tali-fu. In 1245
the  Mongol  army  was  nearing  Tali  under  the command of Hsien-
hseng's  brother  Hu-pi-li.  Prince   Hsian-hsin  sent General Kao-he
to  oppose  him  near the River  of Golden Sand but he was killed in
the battle that ensued. The succeeding Emperor .Swen-yeh sent an
officer  to  sacrifice  to  General  Kao-he's  spirit — a  mark  of  signal
honour.  Prince  Hsian-hsin died  in  1252  having reigned 15 years
and was succeeded by his son Hsin-ci.

            The  independence  of  the  Kingdom of  Nan Chao was now
drawing to a close as the Mongols approached  Tali. Kublai Khan's
victories in China overthrew the Sung Dynasty  and then he started
to  consolidate  China  as  his  empire  and  after   that extended his
authority  in  all  directions.  The  Kingdom  of  Nan  Chao could not
withstand  his  brilliant  generals and enormous  armies so with the
next  prince,  Prince  Hsin-ci, the Kingdom of the  Southern Princes
at  last  fell.  It  was  then  established  under  Imperial rule and had
no   more   independent   hereditary   rulers.    It  was  however  not
formally annexed to the Chinese Empire and taxed for the Imperial
Treasury till the 15th century.

 

                                                           (37)

 

 

1252 A.D. Prince Hsin-ci.
            The  Mongol  Emperor Hsien-tseng sent his brother Hu-pi-li
in command of an army assisted by Generals Wu and Ho to attack
Nan  Chao.  They  had   a  most  difficult  march of 2,000 li much of
it  lying  across  the   mountainous country of Eastern Tibet, across
many  rivers  and  marshes.  At  last  after  many  months  the army
arrived  at  the frontiers of Nan Chao but could advance no further
owing  to  the  impassable  condition  of  the roads and rivers from
continuous rain.
            Prince  Hu-pi-li  then  sent  three  officers  to  Prince Hsin-ci
demanding  his  submission. Prince Hsin-ci refused and killed the
officers who bore the message. He then sent troops to oppose the
Mongols  but  they were defeated and the Mongols took the Shan-
kwan.  Prince   Hsin-ci   had  hoped  that  the Man-tsi troops would
join  him  at  Tali  to   strengthen   his  opposition,  but  they did not
arrive;  in  despair  he  fled   to  Yunnan-fu. General Kao-fai-chang
with   his  small   force  defended the city with great bravery, but he
was  defeated  and  killed beneath the Great Tower. With his dying
breath    he   said  :  " Alas, the House of Twan has come to an end,
though   members   of that House still live. Thus ends the Kingdom
of Nan Chao."  As he died black clouds gathered and heavy peals
of thunder  shook  the  sky.  Prince  Hu-pi-li  heard of this and said :
" Behold a loyal and devoted minister has died."
             General Kao-fai-chang's widow and two sons were brought
before  Prince  Hu-pi-li  in  fear  and  trembling,  beseeching  him to
spare  their  lives.  The  Prince  was moved with pity and said to the
officers  who  stood  around  him: " Behold the widow and sons of a
most  faithful  and brave soldier. Take good care of them and when
the  boys  are old enough give them a position in the Government."
             The    slaughter    during   the  fighting  was  tremendous,  the
Nan Chao troops defending themselves with the greatest determina-
tion  and  courage; but superior numbers won the day. Both Chinese
and  Tai  were  buried  together  in  a  huge  grave  at the back of the
Great Pagoda.   It was called forever after "The Myriad Tomb "

 

                                                            (38)

 

and  a  tablet  was  erected  there  commemorating  the  event.  That
tablet   remains   to  this  day.  Every  year  to  this  day  hundreds  of
people  prostrate themselves before this grave and tablet praying to
be  cured  of  sickness.  Prince Hu-pi-li then took three cities and the
37 clans of Man-tsi submitted to him.
            In  1253  Prince  Hu-pi-li sent Generals Hu and Ho to capture
Yunnan-fu.   They  did  so  and  at  the  same  time  captured  Prince
Hsin-ci,  the  last  King  of  Nan  Chao.  He  only  ruled  for two years
and with him the Later Tali Dynasty ended.
           There  were  in  all  eight  kings  who  ruled  for 157 years and
the  two  Tali  Dynasties  combined  had 22 kings ruling for a total of
315 years.
             After   Prince   Hsin-ci's   capture  the  Emperor  Hsien-hseng
forgave  him  and  gave  him  a  hereditary  office in the province but
with  no  power  to  rule.  He  placed  Tali-fu under Generals Hu and
Ho.   Iu   1260   Hsin-çi   and  his  brother  started  a  journey  to  visit
the  Mongol  Emperor  Cheng-teng  but  Hsin-ci  died on the journey
having   held   his   hereditary   office   for   7  years.  From  this  date
onwards  successive  Mongol Emperors of China always appointed
members of the Twan family as Hereditary Governors.
            At  this  point  ends  the  history  of  the  Tai  as  a  free  nation
in  Southern  China.  From  now  onwards  for  a period of 687 years
their history is associated with Siam and the Thai are still free.

 


 

Extracts   from   this   paper   were   delivered   at  the  Siam  Society,
August 1951, by Luang Suriyabongs Bisuddhi Baedya,

 

 

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