Notes on a Trip from Prachuap (KAW lAK) to Merguil พิมพ์ อีเมล
เขียนโดย A. Kerr.   







                                                      A. Kerr.

The    writer   made  the  journey  from  Prachuap   to   Mergui  in
May-June 1932. The  main  object  of  the  trip  was  to get  some  idea
of the flora on the Burmese side  of  the boundary, as  compared   with
that on the Siamese side. These notes, however, are  chiefly   concern-
ed   with  the  present  route  from  Prachuap  (Kaw   Lak) to Mergui as
compared with that used in the seventeenth century.

With   regard  to  the  flora, it  may  be  briefly  stated  that   there
is a marked change in the vegetation on the Burmese side, noticeable
almost  at  once  on  crossing  the  boundary,  which  is  formed  by the
main  watershed, here   quite   low. The  flora  of  the Burmese  side  of
the   boundary, while   differing  from   that   of  the  adjacent   Siamese
territory, resembles  that   found   a  good  deal  further  south  in  Siam ;
as, for instance, that of Chumpawn.

On  the  way  down  to  Prachuap, Mr. E. W. Hutchinson  met  the
writer, and   lent   him  a  translation  of  Mgr. Lambert's  account  of    a
journey   across   the  Peninsula   from  Mergui, made in June and  July
1662. It   was   at  Mr. Hutchinson's  suggestion   that  enquiries    were
made about the old route, and a look-out kept for traces of it.

The  maps  of  the  Survey  of  India  indicate  the  various routes
crossing  the  Burma-Siam boundary, and also show the sites of many
deserted  villages, some  of  which are  named. On the one-inch-to-the-
mile  map  of  the  region  in  question, the  position  of  Jelinga, an  im-
portant town in the seventeenth century, is indicated. There is,
however, a  difficulty  about  this  site, which  will   be  referred  to  later.
These maps give only Burmese names  for  most  of  the places along
the route, though  many  of   these  places  are  known  locally  only  by
their  Siamese  name. For  instance: the  villages  along  Klawng Sing-

kawn, which  the  route  follows  for  nearly  its whole length, are  wholly
Siamese, and  Siamese  place-names  are  in  current  use. It  is   true
that  there  are  some  Karen  villages  in  the  region, but these are all
a  little  way  back  from  the  river. It   may  be  noted  here  that   these
Karens  are  known  locally  as 'Meo Hai ' (Clearing  Meos).  Siamese






204                                                   A. Kerr


villages also predominate on  Klawng  Nguam, as  far down as Wang
Yai. Below   that   Burmese   villages   are   mixed  with  the  Siamese.

Such  Siamese  names  as  are  given  in  the  Survey  of  India
maps are transliterated by one system when on the Siamese side  of
boundary, and   by   another  when  on  the  Burmese  side. This  may
naturally  lead  to  some  confusion, so a  list  of  the Siamese names,
with their Burmese equivalents, is  given  at  the  end  of  these notes ;
while  in  the  attached  map, Siamese  names,  as   used  locally,are
given; with  the  Burmese  names, as  shown  in  the  Survey  of  India.
maps, in   brackets. The  expression " as  used  locally" is  added ad-
visedly, for some of these Siamese names are  not  those  usually ac-
cepted   in   classic   Siamese. To  take  an example: Tenasserim  is
locally known as 'Manao' or ' Muang Manao', not 'Tanao Sri'.

It   seems  probable  that  the  route  followed  by  the  writer  is
the  same  as  that  used  in  the  seventeenth century; excepting only
two  stretches, one at its eastern end, the  other cutting off a bend  of
Klawng Singkawn. This route is said to be the easiest  and  quickest
way across  the  peninsula  in  this  region, and  it  is  still in  constant
use. The  track  surveyed  for  the proposed railway across the Penin-
sula  from  Mergui  to  Prachuap  closely follows this route for a great
part  of  its  length. There  are  other  routes  to  the  north  and   south,
but they  are more difficult, chiefly on account of  the  higher  hills  that
have to be crossed.

Mgr. Lambert  mentions  Kui  as  the  first town he reached  on
the  plain on  the Siamese side, but this is not to be taken as  indicat-
ing that he crossed the  hills  due  west  of  that  town; where,  indeed,
there  is  a  path, though  a  difficult one. It seems  fairly  certain    that
he  crossed  the  hills  by  the  same  path  as the writer.The  fact  that
he went through Menam Wat  almost  proves  this. In  the  old   day   it
is probable that,immediately  after  crossing the  hills, the  main  route
for   Ayuthia    turned    northwards   towards  Kui. There   would   have
been  no object   in  going due east to Kaw Lak (Prachuap), unless  it
was proposed to take boats there, as, apparently, was sometimes done.

The  tradition  of  a cart-road  across  the  boundary  still   exists
among villages on the Siamese side ; but no such tradition was found






                          Notes on a Trip from Prachuap to Mergui.                           205


on the Burmese side: no doubt because all the villages along the old
cart-road on that side disappeared long ago.

It is  interesting  to  find   that   the   Siamese   villagers  on  the
Burmese  side  al l speak a southern Siamese dialect, like that of the
Peninsula  from  Chumpawn   southwards, quite  distinct  from  that of
the villagers in the Prachuap region.

Mgr.  Lambert   describes   the   country   as  wild. It  is  no less
wild  at  the  present  day ; or,  perhaps, even  wilder,as several of the
villages  of  his  time  have  disappeared. Game is  still  plentiful: both
the one-horned and the two-horned  rhinoceros  are  said to be found
in  the  region. The   one-horned  species  is  rare,  but  one  was shot
earlier  in  the  year  by a party  of  men  from  the  Burmese  side The
most  valuable  parts  of  the animal  were brought into Prachuap and
sold  there, yielding, it  is  reported, about 700 ticals. The  two-horned
rhinoceros  known  as  'kasu' (กาซู), is  not  so  rare. A  herd of kating
or  sladang  was  seen  at  Nawng  Bua, the supposed site of 'Jelinga'.
Wild  elephants  are  plentiful  and  had  left  evidence   of   their  visits
along  a  great  part  of  the  route, but  none  were   actually  seen.The
pests   on   which   Mgr. Lambert   lays   such  stress, the  leeches,still
abound. However, except  for the leeches, and  sometimes sand-flies,
the writer's party experienced no annoyance  from  the wild  life of  the

Turning  now  to  some  of   the  details   of  the  actual   trip: the
party  reached  Prachuap   by   train, about    mid-day  on   May   27th.
Thanks to the kind offices of the Governor and local officials,  carriers
were waiting at the  station, so  a  start  was  quickly  made. As,    how-
ever, it  was  found  necessary  to  purchase  rice, and to make  some
re-arrangements of the loads, only  one  hour's march was made  that
day; camp  being  pitched  at   the  village  of  Nawng  Kam. It   should
be  stated here that  the  rateof marching given is not a reliable  guide
to the time in which the trip could be done ; for the party proceeded in
rather a leisurely fashion, though  not  leisurely  enough  t o satisfy  the
writer, who  would  have  liked  to  have  spent  much more time in this
interesting region.

A cart-road runs  from  Prachuap to Nawng Kam, and for some






206                                                A. Kerr.


miles beyond it, though there are  no  villages  westward  of  it  on the
Siamese  side. This  road  is  used  by  carts  going  into the forest to
fetch  timber  and  fire-wood. These  carts  also bring out the scented
wood    known  as  'mai hawm'  or  'chanchamot'  (Mansonia   Gagei).
This  tree  is  not  felled. The collectors of the wood depend on finding

old, naturally-fallen  trees  in  the  forest. The  villagers  say  that  trees
must lie  for  five  or six years after they have  fallen  before  fragrance
develops in the wood.

The  cart-road  was  followed  for   as  long  as  it  lasted,  some
nine  or  ten  kilometers west of Nawng Kam. Some  way  beyond  the
end of the road, a long embankment, now overgrown with forest,  was
encountered. Legend  says  that  this  is  the  remains  of  a  road built
by   the   Burmese   army. The  name  it  goes  by  is, however,  Tanon
Bram (the Brahmin's Road).

About  three  hours' march  beyond  Ban  Nawng   Kam, a  spot
known  as  Tung  Matum  (the  Field  of  the  Bael  Tree) was reached.
This  is  said  to  be  the  site of  a  village, deserted only thirty or  forty
years  ago. As  far  as  can  be  seen  from  the  path, a mango and  a
tamarind  tree  are  now  the  only  signs  of  a   former  habitation.  No
remains  of  fields  were  seen. Soon  after  leaving   Tung  Matum the
path  started  to  ascend  the  low  ridge   forming   the   boundary.The
ascent, however, is  not  very  steep, and should  offer little difficulty to
the  making  of  a  cart-road. The  highest  point of  the  pass probably
does  not  exceed  240  metres (800 feet). Unfortunately   the account
of  Dr. (now Sir Arthur) Keith's  trip   from   Kaw   Lak  to   Mergui  was
not  fresh  in  the  writer's   memory, and   it   was   not   noticed   if  the
remains  of   the  trenches, mentioned   by   that author, were still to be
seen. At  the  top  of  the  path  was  the heap  of  stones usually found
in  such  situations, offerings   to  the  tutelary  deity  of  the  place.  No
images were observed on this  heap, but  no  very close attention was
paid to it.

On  the western  side  of the boundary the slope is very gradual.
In  the  afternoon  camp  was  pitched  on  that side, by a small stream,
known  as  Hui  Chin. The  ground  covered during  the  day was really
not  more  than  half  a  day's  march. Near  Hui Chin  the path entered






                  Notes on a Trip from Parchuap to Mergui.                                   207


high  evergreen  forest, very different  from  the dry  evergreen  forest
of  small  trees on the eastern side of the ridge. Leeches,which were
absent in the dry  evergreen, now began  to make their presence felt.
No  doubt  they  were  brought out  by   the copious  rain   which  had
commenced  to fall, and which accompanied the party for the rest of
the trip.

Soon  after  starting on  the  29th, bamboo began to appear in
the  forest. This  bamboo, which  is  known  as  'mai  pak' (Oxytenan-
thera sp.),
got  more  abundant  further  on. In  places,  particularly on

rising  ground, it  formed  an  almost  pure  growth, while  on low lying
ground  it  was  more  mixed  with large  trees. After  two  and  a  half
hours  march  from  Hui Chin, the  place  known  as Menam Wat was
reached.  Here, crowning  a   small   hill, are   the   remains   of  brick
buildings. Part  of  these  remains  are  evidently  the  ruins of  a Wat,
among   which  is  a  headless, stone   figure  of  Buddha. The  guide
stated  that  he  could  remember  the  time when there were three or
four such figures here, with their heads still intact.

Close  to  the  ruins  grows  a  palmyra palm, while the trunk of
a  fallen one  was also to be seen nearby. A jack-tree had been here,
but   was  recently  burnt  down. Whether  these  trees  were  actually
here when Menam Wat was  flourishing, or  are  the  descendants of
such trees, is difficult  to  say  without some data as to the age these
species may attain.

Legend   relates   that  the  ground round the building was  for
many  years  kept  free of undergrowth by a large elephant which fre-
quent the spot, but disappeared some time ago. It would be interest-
ing to know if the clay figures of elephants noticed, some forty years
previously, by Dr. Keith on the heap of stones at the  top of the pass,
were offerings to this elephant, as seems not unlikely.

Half   an  hour's march  beyond   Menam  Wat,  a   fairly  large
stream, Klawng  Ta  Prik, was   reached. This  Klawng  is  really  the
main  branch  of  Klawng  Singkawn, which receives the name of Ta
Prik  in  this  part  of  its  course. Boats can, with difficulty, be got up
as far as this.

About  four  and  a  half  hour's march  beyond Menam Wat, a






208                                                A. Kerr.


large open, grassy space, known as Nawng Bua, was reached. This
space probably occupies  an  area of 60 or 70 acres. There is good
reason  to  suppose  that  it  represents a former permanent clearing,
most  probably  occupied  by  rice-fields. The  Survey  of  India maps
identify this spot as the site  of 'Jelinga,' no  doubt  with good reason.
The size of the clearing, by far the largest of  the  clearings along the
old route, points  to  its  having  been  the  site  of  a  fairly  big  place,
such  as 'Jeliuga' seems  to  have  been. The  low  hills  partly border-
ing  the  clearing  fit  in  with  Mgr. Lambert's  description  of  'Jelinga'
as  being  in  a  fertile  valley; the  adjective  'fertile'  implying   that   it
was   cultivated. Mgr. Lambert's  statement  that 'Jelinga'  was   thrce
days'  cart-journey  from  Menam  Wat  raises  a  difficulty. The writer,
walking  at  a  moderate  pace, only  took  four  and  a  half  hours  to
cover the distance  between Menam Wat and  Nawng Bua. The path
between  the  two  places  runs  over nearly  level ground. Klawng  Ta
Prik, however, has  to  be crossed twice. This may have delayed  the
carts; particularly as Mgr. Lambert  left  Jelinga  towards  the  end  of
July, when  the  river  was  probably  high. It  is  also possible that,  at
that time of the year; marshy or flooded ground may  have   impeded
the carts. Even taking  the  above  considerations  into  account, it  is
difficult  to  see  how  the  carts  could  have taken three days for  this
part of the trip, unless  they  were  actually stopped for some time  by
a  river  in flood. It  is  curious  that  the  local  people  have no   know-
ledge  of  the  name 'Jelinga'; though'  Menam  Wat'  is preserved .A
number of villagers on both sides of the  border  were  asked   about
'Jelinga', but none of them had ever heard of it.

On  the  evening  of the 29th camp was pitched on the bank of
Hui  Talemaw, about  half-an-hour's  march  beyond  Nawng Bua. On
the  morning  of  the  30th, after  walking  a  little  more   than   half-an-
hour, a small, open grassy space  was  reached. There is little doubt
that this space, like other such places, was once the site of permanent
cultivation,  and,  presumably,  also  of  habitations. Dr. Keith   in   his
account  states  that  buffaloes, during  the  dry  season, are driven to
these  patches  of  grass  for  grazing. It is possibly on account of this
that these spaces have for so long resisted the invasion of  the forest.






                    Notes on a Trip from Prachuap to Mergui                               209


Unfortunately,  no  record   was   made  of  the  name  of   this particular
spot. About  two   hour's  march  further  on, another, similar,  but  some-
what  larger  space  was  reached.This  is  known as Tung Muang.  The
guide stated that there were the  ruins  of  a  wat  nearby, but the    party
did  not  stop  to  look  for  them. About  midday  a  small hill  was reach-
ed.  This  was  the  first  hill  of  any  size  that  had  to be crossed  since
leaving  the   boundary. Here   grew   a   handsome   bamboo; in   large
clumps  of  lofty, smooth  culms. It  is  known  as  'ram   ra' (รำระ), and is
probably  the  same  as  that  called 'kriep' in Peninsula Siam, south  of
Chumpawn. Rafts  for  descending   the   river   are   usually   made   of
this bamboo.

On  the  other  side  of  the  hill  the  path  descended  to  Klawng
Singkawn,  which  had   to  be  crossed   here. This  ford   is   known as
' Ta Pe ' (Raft   Crossing). It   is   so   called   as,  from   this   point,   the
descent  of   the  river   is   often   made   in   bamboo   rafts. Numerous
difficult  rapids  have  to  be  negotiated, however, and  many rafts have
come  to  grief; particularly   when  they  have  been  in  charge  of  men
insufficiently acquainted with the river.

After  crossing  at  Ta  Pe  the  route  ran  eastwards, away  from
the  river, which  here  makes a  big bend to the south. A  small  stream,
Klawng   Intanin,  had   now  to  be  followed up, chiefly  by  wading.  Re-
cently fallen trees and bamboos were frequent here, and caused some
delay; as  a  way  had  to  be  cut  through  or  round  such  obstructions.
The  country  was   now   much   more   hilly; the   hills   sloping   steeply
down  to  the  stream  on  both  sides. That evening, camp was pitched
by Klawng Intanin.

The  next   morning  another  two  hours  was  spent  in  following
up  this  stream, again  with   frequent  wading. Then   a   short   ascent
was   made  from   the  stream   to   the   top  of  a  pass. This  pass  is
known to the  Siamese  as  Den  Noi. Its  top  is  marked  by  a   pile of
stones. According   to  local  tradition  this  spot  at  one  time  marked
the  boundary  of  Siam. On descending from Den Noi, another stream
was struck, and followed down.

About  here  a  party  of  travellers, consisting of seven men and
one woman, was met, These  were  Bangkok people who had been to






210                                                A. Kerr.


Mergui  to  trade. They  were  the  only people met, crossing from one
country  to the  other. Traders,  however,  frequently  make  the  trip  in
dry    weather.   Cloth   is   taken, chiefly   by   Indians,  from   Siam   to
Burma; while   buffaloes  and  jungle  knives  are  brought   over   from

That  evening  (May 31st) Ban  Hui  Sai Kao, a  village of about
twenty  houses, was  reached. This  was  the   first  village, or   indeed
habitation  of  any  sort, met  with  since  leaving  Ban Nawng Kam. At
the  present day there are no villages on the Klawng Singkawn above
Ban   Hui   Sai   Kao, though   there  were  several   in   former    times.
Besides the sites already mentioned, there are said to be remains  of
brick buildings at a place called Kao Noi, about a day  by  boat above
Ban Hui Sai Kao.

The   present   position  of  Ban  Hui  Sai  Kao  is  a fairly recent
one. The  village  used  to  be  further  down  the  river, at  the mouth of
Hui  Sai  Kao. Though   it   has   moved   away   from   that   stream,  it
retains  its  name. As  the  inhabitants   cultivate   practically   all   their
rice  in   temporary   clearings, it   is  not  surprising   that  they have to
change the site of their village now and then.

Below  Ban  Hui  Sai  Kao, and  for  a  day's boat journey above
it, there  are  no  rapids  on  the  river. Higher   up, i.e., beyond  a day's
journey, there commences a series of difficult rapids, where the bed of
the  stream  is  very  rocky. There  are  said  to  be some thirty of these
rapids  before  Ta  Pe  is  reached, Fairly  large  boats, such as  those
described below, can  ascend  these  rapids, if ropes are used to haul
them over the worst  places. The  headman  of  the  village  stated that
it  took  seven  or  eight  days  to ascend with such a boat from Manao
(Tenasserim) to  Ban  Hui  Sai Kao, and  another four days to go on to
Ta Pe. Boats, however,can be got beyond this, even as far as Klawng
Ta   Prik. The   times  taken, of   course,  vary   with   the  state   of   the
river.  If  the  river  is  in  flood  it  takes  much  longer  to  get   up   it. At
the present day boats occasionally go as far as  Ta  Prik, to  load  mai
hawm (Mansonia Gagei).

The  boats  referred  to  above  are  five-wa boats, i.e., about ten
metres long, with a breadth of about one and a half metres. They






                         Notes on Trip from Prachuap to Mergui                                211


usually  have  a  low  thatch  roof  amidships. Like  other   local   river-
craft, their basis is a  hollowed tree-trunk, the sides being built up. In
all  probability  these  boats  are  very  much  as  they   were   in   Mgr.
Lambert's  time. The present writer, by  camping  each  night  on  the
bank of the river, or  on  sandy  islets, escaped  the great discomfort
which  Mgr. Lambert  and  his  party must have experienced in sleep-
ing  in  the  boats; and  the  far  greater  discomfort  which must have
fallen   to   the   lot  of   Dr. Keith, who  had  neither  boat  nor  tent  to
protect him from the all too frequent  rains, not  to mention a ducking
from the capsizing of his raft.

The  greater  part  of  two  days was spent at Ban Hui Sai Kao.
Only  a  single  boat  was  obtainable  there, and  in  this the party left
that  village  on  the  afternoon  of  June  2nd. The  banks  of the river
are not thickly  populated, and there is some evidence that the popu-
lation  has  decreased  in  recent times. Several  villages have been
deserted, or  become  much  diminished  in  size, within  the last fifty
years  or  so. For   instance   the   village  known  as  Hat   Keo, was,
according  to  the  boatmen, once a large  village. Now it consists of
only  three  or  four  houses. No  doubt  this  is  the  same  village   re-
ferred  to  by Dr.  Keith  as  Wat  Keo, which,  he  tells   us, had   400

The  journey  down  the  river  was without noteworthy incident,
and  Tenasserim was  reached  in  the  forenoon  of June 5th.This is
now  quite  a  small  place, little  more  than  a  village. It  is   situated
on  a  peninsula, at  the  junction  of  the  Big  and  Little  Tenasserim
Rivers. The  remains  of  the  old  wall  enclose  a space much larger
than  the  present  town. Besides  the  prachedis  to  be  seen on the
small  hill  close  to  the  town,  there are the remains of others on the
higher  hills  to  the  west,  but  these  are  now  quite  hidden  by   the

On  the  morning  of  June  6th  the  journey  was continued in a
passenger launch, which reached Mergui about 4 p.m. that afternoon.

As  may  be  inferred  from  the  above  account, the trip across
the Peninsula from Prachuap to Mergui offers no particular difficulties.
If it is undertaken during the rains, however, it may be rather an






212                                            A. Kerr


uncomfortable  one.  It  is  remarkable  that, of  the  few people  who
have given an account  of  the trip, two  should  have made it in   the
rains: Mgr. Lambert   and   Dr. Keith.  In   the  dry  season   the    trip
should  be  a  pleasant  one, with   only  the  discomforts  arriving  in
Tenasserim and Mergui, where one  has not the kindly jungle to  fall
back on.

If  the  traveller  only   wishes  to  go  straight across  from  one
point   to  the   other,  the   trip   could  be done in  six days: provided
arrangements for transport  are made  in advance. Ban Hui Sai Kao
can  be  reached  in   four,   fairly   easy,  marches   from    Prachuap.
Villagers,  travelling   light, usually  take  only   three  days to  do  this
part  of  the  trip. It  would  save some time if the carriers waited   for
the  traveller  at  Ban  Nawng  Kam; the  journey  from   Prachuap  to
that village being made by motor-car. Carriers should be warned  to
take  with  them  provisions  for  five  days, which  will  give  a   day's
margin for possible delays. No supplies of any sort can be obtained
between Ban Nawng  Kam  and  Ban Hui Sai Kao. Boats should be
ordered  ahead, to  be  waiting  at  Ban  Hui Sai Kao. These   would
take  the  traveller  down   Klawng   Singkawn,  to   its   junction   with
Klawng   Nguam, on  the  fifth  day. At that point a motor-boat should
be  waiting. It  could  make  the  rest  of  the  journey  to  Mergui  in  a
day. Owing  to  the  shallows, and  numerous  submerged  trees, it is
not  feasible  to  take  a  motor-boat up Klawng Singkawn. There are
no  difficulties  to  speak of in the Little Tenasserim River, formed by
the junction of Klawng Singkawn and Klawng Nguam.

However, it  is  to  be  hoped that no one is going to make the
trip  simply  to  see  in  how  short  a  time  it  can   be done. There is
much to interest the biologist or  the archaeologist  along  this  route.
Here  are  wide  stretches of untouched forest, as well as areas that
have  been  under  cultivation, but  deserted  probably  more  than  a
hundred  years  ago; and  yet are still easily distinguishable from the
surrounding forest. Such  a  comparatively  easy  route  between the
bay  of  Bengal  and  the Gulf  of  Siam  was, in  all  probability, used
long   before  the  seventeenth  century. It   may   well   be,   therefore,
that a systematic examination of the deserted sites would yield






                       Notes on a Trip from Prachuap to Mergui                           213


the archaeologist interesting results.

Note.—The  map  attached  to  these notes has been compiled
from the  Survey  of  India  maps. The  writer, however, is  responsible
for  most  of  the  Siamese  names  thereon. These  Siamese  names,
with  the  equivalent  Burmese names, as used in the Survey of Indian
maps, are as follows :—


Siamese                                                                         Burmese


Chalawan                           ชาลวัน                               Salawan


Den noi                               แดนน้อย                            Ngya-taung Pass


Hat Keo                              หาดแก้ว                             Letpanthaung


Hui Chin                              ห้วยจีน                               


Hui Sai Kao                        ห้วยทรายขาว                    Thebyu C.


Hui Talemaw                       ห้วยตะเลหม้อ                    Ka-le-mo Chaung


Kaw Sanuk                         เกาะสนุก                            Hatti-nang


Klawng Intanin                    คลองอินทนิล                    Kalin-kwan Chaung


Klawng Keo                        คลองแก้ว                           Indaw C.


Klawng Meo Hai                 คลองแมวไห้                     Kyein C.


Klawng Nguam ?                คลองงวม?                        Ngawun Chaung


Klawng Sai                          คลองใส                            Banthe C.


Klawng Taket                      คลองตาแกด                     Thagyet C.


Klawng Ta Kilek                  คลองท่าขี้เหล็ก                 Iliam Chaung


Klawng Ta Palat                  คลองตาปลัด                    Tabalat Chaung


Klawng Ta Prik                    คลองท่าพริก                     Htaprik-yo-so


Lem Yuan                             แหลมญวน                         —


Manao                                  มะนาว                               Tenasserim


Menam Wat                         แม่น้ำวัด                             Mai-nam-wat






214                                              A. Kerr


Nawng Bua                           หนองบัว                             Naung bwa

Singkawn                              สิงขอน                               Theinkun

Taling Deng                           ตลิ่งแดง                              Kwëgayan

Ta Pe                                      ท่าแพ                                  —

Tung Matum                           ทุ่งมะตูม                              

Tung Muang                           ทุ่งม่วง                                 Htawng Mwun

Wang Yai วังใหญ่ Kyauktalon)


  1. Relation  du   voyage  de   Mgr de Bérite.  Missions  etrangères.
    Paris vol. 121. p. 626. vol. 876 p. 117.

  2. An  Account  of  a  Journey across the Malay  Peninsula  from
    Koh   Lalc   to   Mergui.  By   Arthur    Keith, M. B., C. M.,  Journ.

    Straits Branch R. A. S., No. 24, December 1891.

                        A. Kerr.








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