An Excursion to Lophburi พิมพ์ อีเมล
เขียนโดย Erik Seidenfaden.   




                                          An Excursion to Lophburi
                          (Paper read Before  the  Siam  Society on the
                                             14th December 1921).

          The theme which I am going to treat of in this paper is not
a new one, and has as a matter of fact already been the subject of
one paper published in this Journal, namely, by Mr. R. W. Giblin in
July 1908. It has also been treated in a most scholarly manner by
H. R. H. Prince Damrong Rajanuphab, our gracious and learned
Vice-Patron, in the first vol. of his Phra Raja Pongsawadan, to which
I am much indebted and parts of which have been translated by
Mr. J. Crosby, C. I. E., (to whose instructive notes I also am much
indebted) and published in the Journal of the Siam Society (vol.
XIII, part 2).
          When, I nevertheless, once more venture to write upon the
same subject, it is not with the wish to vie with the learning of the
above cited authorities, but rather as an attempt to present a resumé
of the entire history of Lophburi, which I think has so far not
been undertaken.
          Lophburi is a very old city and as such has had no less than
two golden periods, one in antiquity and one of more recent date.
The town is full of old temples and other interesting ruins, and is
therefore well worth visiting more especially as it is quite near to
Bangkok — in fact only four hours travel by the Northern Railway.
The city lies on a branch of the Mēnām Chao Phraya, called Mēnām
Lophburi, 120 kilometres from the sea, and is built upon a sort of
tongue of higher land stretching out to the Mēnām from the hills to
the East of the town ; to S. W. and N. it is surrounded by very low
lying land, usually inundated during the rainy season. There is
good evidence that some 1500 years ago the sea rolled its waves
right up to the shores of Lophburi or at least to a point not far
South of it. It is therefore easy to understand that when the Indian
emigrants crossed the Bay of Siam coming from the Malay Penin-
sula one of their first colonies would be planted here. The sources
from which we can obtain information relating to the history of
Lophburi are fivefold, viz : (1) Phongasawadan Nua (the Northern




chronicles) ; (2) the old Chinese travellers' accounts ; (3) Stone
inscriptions ; (4) the Ayuthia chronicles ; and .(5), last but not least,
the accounts of the French ambassadors, travellers and priests from
the latter half of the 17th century.
          The name of the town was in the olden times Lavo. It was
later on altered to Lophburi (often pronounced by the peasants as
Nokburi) and, according to the legendary accounts of the Northern
Chronicles, was founded by King Kalavarnadis called the black
Tissa from Taksila A. D. 468.
          (Taksila is an old town standing on the banks of the Indus
and the present Muang Tak or Raheng probably got its name from
that Indian city, as it was the custom of the Indian settlers to name
their new founded cities and Kingdoms after those in their father-
land). The date may seem ambiguous, but it must be remembered
that there has been found in Lophburi (by H. E. Phya Boranraja-
tanindr, the Viceroy of Ayuthia) an engraved stonepillar which, though
bearing no date, by the archaic form of the letters points to a date
not later than the VIth or Vllth century A. D., thereby confirming
the approximate correctness of the date given by the Northern
Chronicles, the accuracy of which is else, and with reason, so
mistrusted. The language of the inscription is partly untrans-
latable with exception of some Mohn words, which record some
gifts given to a Buddhist temple, and here an interesting question at
once crops up. Who were the original dwellers of Lavō ? Some
authorities have thought that they were Mohn, which the foremost
Mohn authority in this country, i. e,, Rev. R. Halliday, has emphatically
denied (see his paper J. of S. S. vol. X. part 3. p. 18) but at least
they were a people speaking a Mohn-like language. Now whom
have we left of a Mohn-like speaking people in Siam of to day ?
We have the Lawā of which scattered remains are still to be found
in many places, principally in Northern Siam, but also in West
Khorāt and Petchabūn, Nakon Svarga and Supan; these people
speak a very Mohn-like language (see my paper in J. of S. S. vol.
XII., part 3). I therefore believe that the original population in Loph-
buri as in the whole of the Mēnām valley was Lawā and that the
untranslated part of the above mentioned stone-inscription is Lawā
too,i. e., a more refined form of the Lawā tongue than the present




one, which probably represents a more primitive or degenerated form
of their speech*. I also think with the late Colonel Gerini that Lavō
may stand for Lawāpura, i. e., the city of the Lawā. The Lawā
were conquered and civilised in the first century of our Era, or per-
haps much earlier, by Indian colonists, who set up an independent
Kingdom at first, later on it was perhaps conquered by Fūnan,
Cambodia's predecessor, thereafter subjugated by the Cambodians
with whom the Indo-Lawā mixed to a great extent and finally in
the end, the Thai came from the North and took possession. The
present population should therefore be a mixture of Lawā, Indians
Cambodians and Thai or what is called Thai-khom ; N. W. of the'
town one finds two tambons peopled by Mohn, these are not abori-
ginals but immigrants from the time of the wars between Burma
and Siam about 350 years ago. We will now continue the account of
the outer events in the history of Lophburi. The Nang Chām Dēvi
chronicle tells us that in A. D. 654 a king or emperor of Lavō sent
his daughter, named Nang Chām Dēvi, to govern Haribhunjai, the
present Lampūn by which we see that the sway of Lophburi at that
time stretched up to the Mēkong in the North. I have until quite
recently doubted the accuracy of the date given for Nang Chām
Dēvi's mission, believing it to be too ambiguous with regard to its
antiquity (see my notes to the translation of Phra Phetchabūn's
paper J. of S. S. vol. XIV part 1. p. 46), but subsequent reflection
after a renewed visit to the ruins of Lophburi has brought me to be-
lieve that the date is probably correct. According to the Lampūn
chronicle Lavō was attacked in A. D. 924 by a fleet from Ligor, i. e.,
Nakon Sri Dharmaraj, but in A. D. 957 the kingdom was still a
powerful one. After that time the kingdom was ruled, sometimes
from Lavō sometimes from Ayuthia, i. e., Dvaravati, the Hindu
colony founded (on the island of the present Ayuthia) perhaps not a
very long time after Lophburi. One of the rulers of Lavō, a cer-
tain King Chand Joti, altered the name of the city from Lavō to
Lophburi and this King was about A. D. 1000 defeated by King


          * This theory to which I was led little by little through my studies of the Lawā,
I am happy to see, has now been confirmed by H. B. H. Prince Damrong who in his
"Tio tam thang rot fai: Lophburi" says that the whole of the Mēnam valley and the
country as far up as Chieng Sen was formerly occupied by t he Lawā, who had formed
several Kingdoms of which Lavo was one.




Anuruddha, the mighty warrior King of Burma, and had to acknow-
ledge his sovereignty. Soon after the death of King Anuruddha,
however, the Siamese parts of his empire regained their indepen-
dence, but instead of one, there were now three states, viz., Lam-
pūn, Sukhotai and Lophburi. Of these at least the two last were
under Cambodian sovereignty, which is proved by another inscrip-
tion from Lophburi (in Cambodian this time). It dates from the
reign of King Suriyavarman I. (A. D. 1002-1049) and mentions
gifts given to a temple dedicated to the God Paramavasudeva, i. e.,
Vishnu ; Lophburi is herein called Lvo ; the gifts consisted of baya-
dères, servants and rice from the land of Vdan*, and Dvar Jalavi-
mana (the last named must have been the country lying around the
present day Ayuthia ; the second parts of its name signifying " dwel-
lings at the sea " shows that Dvaravati lay near the sea). A later in-
scription, found by the famous French traveller and archaeologist
Aymonier in Wat Khoi engraved on the back of a statue of Buddha,
dates from about A. D. 1109. This inscription (which also was in
Cambodian) as well as the temple itself I have not been able to
trace in Lophburi ; perhaps it is identical with the Wat Khoi at Klong
Kum about 24 kilometres S. W. of Lophburi. Before continuing I
may mention a fourth inscription seen also by Aymonier, at Bang-
Pa-In ; it is in Cambodian too and dates from King Sri Suriyavar-
man I.'s reign ; its contents relate to the rules of life for the Buddhist
monks. Aymonier thought the last inscription to originate from
Lophburi too, but I understand that this is doubtful. According to a
fifth inscription also in Cambodian engraved under a bas-relief re-
presenting the chief of Lavō leading his troops (to be seen in the
galleries of Angkor Wat), it appears that at this time, probably about
A. D. 1150, Lophburi like the rest of Siam was under Cambodian over-
lordship. We know that Sukhotai, as probably Lophburi also, cast
off the Cambodian yoke about A. D. 1256 or 1257 and according to
H. R. H. Prince Damrong's views Lophburi was finally conquered
by Phraya Uthong shortly before he made Ayuthia his capital in
A. D. 1350. The Chinese chroniclers tell us about two kingdoms in
Siam, Sien and Lo-hu ; the first one has been indentified with Sukho-
tai and the second one with Lavō or Lophburi.   According to the


          * Prince Damrong thinks that Vdan was the present Chaibadān at Nām Sak.




accounts about Malayu, a Malay kingdom in Sumatra, and parts of the
Malay Peninsula, this Kingdom sent ambassadors and gifts contempo-
raneously with Lavō to China in A. D. 1299, which shows that Lavō
though under Sukhotai's overlordship had still kept a sort of semi-
independence at that time. When Phraya Utong in 1350 founded
Ayuthia he appointed his son Phra Ramesvara to be ruler of Lophburi.
As will be known, this title is still existing to-day, but its high bearer
is at present viceroy of the Southern provinces in Malacca. The next
time we. hear something about Lophburi is during the first war be-
tween Burma and Siam, when it was conquered by the Burmese
army in 1563. Five years Inter it was again taken by the Burmese,
but the sojourn in this Siamese Capua proved too much for the
Burmese soldiers, who were surprised and badly beaten by the King of
Wieng Chandr, the latter having hurried to the assistance of the King
of Siam, besieged in his capital by the Burmese. Notwithstanding this
victory the Lāo king was soon after defeated by the Burmese and had
to retire to his own country ; as a result of which Ayuthia was forced
to surrender to the King of Burma. In 1581 we hear of one Yana
Prajien strong in occult science — a "Pu Viset" in Siamese — who
gathered a body of followers and occupied Lophburi only shortly after
to meet his fate through a shot from a mutineer's musket. In 1602
Siam's famous warrior King Phra Naresvara, an ardent worshipper of
Vishnu and Siva at the same time as of Buddha, went to stay at
Lophburi for his pleasure, an example to be followed by one of his
successors, the well known King Phra Narai Mahāraj. I do not intend
here to relate in detail the events concerning Phra Narai's Reign — how
the Greek adventurer, the talented Constantine Phaulcon, won the con-
fidence and favour of the King to such an extent that he was raised to
the rank of Chao Phraya Wichayen, how he constructed palaces and
forts for the King and specially in Lophburi, which place King
Narai had chosen for his summer residence since 1657, and further
how Phaulcon induced the King to open diplomatic intercourse with
France sending Siamese Ambassadors to Louis XIV.'s court and re-
ceiving French Ambassadors in Ayuthia and Lophburi ; and finally
how Phaulcon with his excessive zeal for converting the King to
Christianity was together with his master overthrown by the envious
noblemen, the leader of whom was Phra Phetraja, losing his life in




1688. All that has been described by various French writers (who
call Lophburi Luvo), and has been set forth by Mr. Giblin, a former
Director of the Survey Department, in his paper " Lophburi past and
present", published in the Journal of the Siam Society in 1908, much
better than I can do it. After the revolution in 1688 Lophburi fell
into oblivion and its architectural splendours became mere ruins
overgrown with jungle, in which state they remained for more than
150 years, until King Mongkut, the grandfather of His present
Majesty, chose this as an occasional summer residence and repaired
the walls of the citadel and one of the palaces (the wat-like Chandra-
visal). Since then the town has revived and is now quite prosperous
in a small way, situated as it is in one of Siam's most fertile

          We will now start our sight-seeing, — beginning with the big
temple lying close to the railway station and a little S. W. of the same
It is called Nā Phra Dhatu. Inside the brickwalls built in a spacious
square, stands in the centre a tall "Prang" built of reddish sandstone; it
is approached from the East by a steep staircase which leads up to a
now empty room where in pre-Buddhist days an image of a Brah-
min god was placed. The building is unmistakably Cambodian work.
The foundations of two other towers are seen to the right and left of
the " Prang," which is itself quite a fine example of the architectural
skill of the creators of that stupendous and wonderful Angkor Wat
The other buildings inside the walls are of a later date, and distinctly
Thai ; so is the big Vihara adjoining the Prang to the East, also a Bôt
South of the Vihara and another building serving as a sort of
entrance lying to the North of the Prang, and so finally are the rows
of prachedis and prangs inside the wall, all now in deplorable
ruins. Inside the Bôt are a great many stone statues of the
Buddha sitting on the Nāga, most of them of good workmanship. It
is a pity that all this is allowed to fall into ruin, — one sighs for the
Siamese Maecenas who will repair this grand temple. But will that
ever happen ? From this temple we follow the railway going North
and, a few minutes after, we stop at a temple lying to the East
of the line called Nakon Khosa. it consists of a brick " Prang "
in  Cambodian  style, but was perhaps built by the Thai.    Its




chamber opens to the East and on the three other sides are niches,
two of which are empty, the third one containing a standing Buddha.
Just behind this "Prang", which itself is built on the top of a small
eminence, the ground rises rather abruptly in the shape of a tall
conical hill, at the foot of which are the ruins of a small temple. The
top of the hill is crowned with another building, of what nature it is
difficult to say, as everything is covered with an impenetrable
thorny jungle. Probably it is another Prang.* Just opposite, i. c, to
the west of the railway line, are the ruins of a temple : a Vihara or
Bôt, it is not certain which. Some well-made Buddha statues are
seen here. This temple is called by some Wat Phra Indra, while
others maintain that this is the name of the temple described as Wat
Nakon Khosa, which name they give to the temple called Phra
Prang Sam Yot later on to be visited by us. We continue our walk
and shortly after arrive at what is called Sān Song (or Sān Phra
Kal), i. e. the high sanctuary ; it consists of a big pile of sandstone
blocks and blocks made of this peculiar natural cement called " Sila-
leng " (laterite) and is built in form of a pyramid with two terraces.
On the lower one, which is approached by a staircase from the West,
an ugly, modern, iron-roofed shed has been erected, and in this, placed
on an altar, are to be seen a standing image of a four armed Vishnu
or Narai, having on his right hand a smaller image of the goddess
Lakshmi ; a fine female statue without a head is leaning to the wall
behind the statue of Lakshmi. It is a curious fact that the Chinese
especially adore and worship these statues, probably from a busi-
ness instinct thinking it best to keep on good terms with the local
genii-! Behind this " Sān Chao " we mount some more steps and
arrive on the top of the pyramid, where we find another brick build-
ing also of recent origin, inside which is seen a stone "somasutra",
i. e., the stone on and in which the image of the god was placed. In
the stone is cut a channel running round the sides of it and ending
in an outlet behind the image. This was made to get rid of the soma
or sacrificial drink which the Bhramius poured out in front of the
god during the act of worship, A sculpture representing Vishnu
lying on the snake Ananta is also kept in this building.   A mighty


          * Prince Damrong says that it was a stone temple on the crumbled remains of
which a Vihara was built.




banyan tree grows close to the pyramid and in its leafy crown dwells
a joyous company of monkeys, which are quite tame and will come
down to accept fruit out of your hands. One is reminded of the,
sacred monkeys living in Vishnu's temples in India. Who knows !
They may be descendants of such animals from the time when
Vishnu was Paramadeva in this venerable city. Not far from Sān
Song on the other side of the railway line lies the finest of all the
temples : Phra Prang Sam Yot. This temple consists of three to-
wers all built of sandstone and distinctly in Cambodian style but
they are all connected with each other by galleries ; the towers have
doors to all four sides and are on the outside adorned with the sculp-
tures typical of such buildings. As for instance, over the
western door of the central tower the god Indra sitting on the
three headed elephant and on the corners of the terraced superstruc-
tures, the sculptures of many Rishis (hermits). The snake motive
so commonly seen over all Cambodian temple doors does not lack
here too, but it is more or less destroyed, the sculptured stones having
fallen down for the most part. Outside the western door of the cen-
tral tower are seen a Buddha sitting on a snake, three torsos of
other sitting Buddhas (one of which is sitting on a snake), also 4
standing statues without heads. Judging from the ornamented belt
of one of these, I believe it to represent a Bhramin god. The in-
terior of the temple is a real treasury of sitting or standing images
mostly of Buddha ; in all 76. Of these 45 are sitting upon the 7 head-
ed Naga, 4 may by reason of the diadems and the absence of cus-
tomary monk's habit be supposed to represent the god Vishnu ; there
are other 18 sitting Buddhas (on the Lotus flower) and finally 13
standing ones. It is possible that some of the standing ones are re-
presentations of disciples. Some are placed in the windows of the
galleries and throughout the longitudinal axis of the temple you see
them sitting or standing everywhere, some hidden in niches and
and some placed in the centre of the towers. All the statues are of
sandstone, many covered with a layer of lacquer upon which former-
ly the gold-leaf was stuck. It is a curious fact that nowhere in
Siam do you meet with so many Buddhas sitting on the Naga.
(Phraya Nāk) as here in Lophburi, a fact which may be explained
by the existence of a special snake cult here in the olden days.   On




the Eastern side of the temple is a brick building which quite spoils
the " ensemble " of the temple. This building dates from Phra Narai's
time, inside are seen a big sitting Buddha—well preserved—in the
middle, and 7 smaller ones, of which four are sitting on the Nagās,
some 6 or 7 well made heads, as also débris of a very big Buddha—
the head alone is three feet long—are lying around. From these débris
it can be seen how the statues were constructed, i. e., how they were
built up of carved blocks and thereafter covered with a thick layer
of lime. Leaving this temple we strike westwards and are soon in the
centre of the old town, where is standing another monument : three
brick built towers called Dēvasatan or Phra Prang Khēk. The
construction of the monument seems to have been begun by the
Cambodians and finished by the Thai ; the towers are quite well
preserved. Of 2 smaller, square-formed buildings lying in front, i.e.,
East and S. E. of the towers, the last one is in the best condition
having only lost its roof. It is a pity that the Chinese are permitt-
ed to use these buildings as latrines, as also that here, as at Nā Phra
Dhatu, they are allowed to take bricks away from the ruins. Con-
tinuing towards the west we reach Phaulcon's house or palace consist-
ing of 5 buildings constructed in a curious style, all rather narrow and
with windows the form of which reminds one of the Saraccnic
style. Here resided the mighty minister with his Japanese wife
and here he no doubt entertained the French noblemen, officers and
also priests. One of the buildings farthest west was in fact a chapel.
From Phaulcon's palace we turn to the left to roach the citadel
and King Narai's palace, but before entering the citadel let us turn
to the right and stop just for a moment to visit Wat Sao Tuny
Thong where a peculiar octogonal Prachedi attracts one's attention,
In its whitewashed niches are seen golden figures of standing, walk-
ing or sitting Buddhas, which though undoubtedly of recent origin
arc still worth looking at.
          The Vihara dates, in its original form, from the time of the
foundation of Ayuthia (A. D. 1350). At the outskirts of the temple
grounds lie two buildings, one called T'uk Pichu the other T'uk Kho-
chasarn. According to the views of Prince Damrong the first name
stands for the French word petit, i. e., small, while the other is derived
from Khorassan a Persian province, these buildings being occupied




respectively by some French residents and the Persian ambassador
to the court of Phra Narai. The citadel is surrounded by brick walls
built in an oblong square and divided in to 3 courtyards; there are
eight gates, two on each face. Each of the four corners of the citadel
is built like a bastion and there are still traces of openings for the guns
placed behind the walls. We enter the citadel by the N. E. gate, inside
which is the house of the Governor; we are now, in the first and lowest
courtyard. Just opposite the Governor's house, I. e., South, are the ruins
of several two-storied houses, which served as inagazins for the King.
They are appropriately called " Phra Klang ", one of the buildings being
of more than ordinary interest by reason of the immense thickness
of its walls and the remains of pipes debouching from the brickwork.
This is the famous water reservoir, where the water led through
under-ground pipes from Talē Chuhsorn about 4 kilometres N. East
or the town, was stored, and from here directed to the fountains and
the bating basins reserved for King Narai. A road between the
Governor's i -use and the " Klang" leads through a tall gate up and
into the inn; : courtyard on both sides of which were built stables
for elephants. We do not, however, enter by this gate but turn to
the left, still keeping inside the outer courtyard where we examine
the ruins of the houses destined for the King's guests, also dungeons
and fountains, whereafter we enter the second courtyard through a
gate in the Southern part of the outer courtyard and see here the
few remains left of King Narai's personal apartment called Phra
Thi Nang Sutthasawan. Of the four basins described by Gervaise in
his book about Luvo, nothing is to be seen now. From this court-
yard we walk up the curious sloping approach to a gate leading into
the 3rd and upper courtyard. We have at once on our left hand the
ruins of the audience hall called Phra Thi Nang Thanya Maha Prasat,
a tall ugly building now without a roof ; the interior is not big. At
the end of the hall is seen the window behind which the royal
throne was placed and in which the King appeared when he received
ambassadors in audience. According to Gervaise the walls of the hall
were covered with large fine mirrors brought out from France and
the building itself was covered with a pyramidical roof probably
something like that of Dusit Mahā Prasat in the Chakkri palace.
To the left of the audience hall are still two buildings more ; namely.




the offices of the changvad and a wat-like one called Chandrrisal
built by King Mongkut. Behind these buildings were and are still to-
day two long rows of buildings where in King Narai's time, his
harem stayed. Standing in front of the government offices one sees
a gate in the Northern wall. This is Praln Wichayen, and here
was Phaulcon arrested by Phra Phetraja's soldiers, later on to be led
out into the forest at Tale Chubsorn and killed there. A lot of small
niches will be observed in the gate buildings and in other places too;
these were, according to Gervaise, ornamented with China vases on
big days and — I believe — also used for placing lamps when illu-
minating the palace. The fortifications were no doubt constructed
by M. de la Marre, a French military engineer, who probably also
built the palaces and other buildings, which all look rather uncom-
fortably narrow and dark, besides being very ugly. The town is
surrounded on three sides by high earthen walls and broad moats.
Besides this there is an interior moat, which probably represents the
old Cambodian town boundary. But let us mount a horse and make
a tour out to the famous Tale Chubsorn. We clatter down through
the streets, cross the railway line at San Song and are nearly at once
in jungle. We cross the interior moat, which was formerly spanned
by a fine brickbuilt bridge, and soon afterwards we see the tall red
Prutu Phanicrt, outside which and just opposite is the " Phaniert":
i. e., the elephant kraal, an enclosure surrounded by high steep ear-
then walls. At its Eastern extremity is a small gap through which
the elephants were driven into the kraal. We continue along a
primitive cartroad through jungle and gardens, and now we stop
again and there at our right hand is Sra Kéo which served as a sort
of filter and from which the water was led through pipes into the
city. Just opposite we see the tall red pile of an old Phrachedi called
Wat Sai, quite overgrown with green bushes; and from here we soon
reach Pāk Chan, the sluice through which the water was led out
through a canal of the same name from Talē Chubsorn to Sra Kēo.
From this place we follow the N. W. bank of Tale Chubsorn, from
the top of which we look over this vast natural depression to the
hills not far away, the sloping ground from the hills serving as one
side of the embankments of the reservoir ; on the other side were
high earthen embankments. At present the reservoir is absolutely dry




in the dry season ; hut in King Narai's time there was probably
(according to Mr. Irwin, the late Adviser to the Survey Department)
about 9 feet of water, so much that the King could have two small
frigates navigating there. This reservoir has been named Chubsorn
after the lake in which Rama dipped his arrows to harden them.
We finally reach Phra Thi Nang Yen, the King's forest palace con-
sisting of two not very pretentious looking buildings of the same style
as those in the Citadel ; it was here that the Jesuit astronomers
observed an eclipse of the moon in the presence of King Narai. Just
before reaching the royal forest villa one observes four small wooden
"Sān Chaos" erected on the embankment of the Talē, these are
called " San Chaophraya Wichayen " According to popular belief
here was the place where Phaulcon met his death and the spirit-
houses are erected to appease his spirit by the customary offerings.
I think that this is the only instance of a " Farang spirit " so far to
be worshipped in this country. We return by the same route but
instead of entering the Pratu Phaniert we continue following the
moat Southwards finally crossing this at Pratu Khorāt    ( ประตูโคราช ).
Though it sounds improbable, I believe that this name must have
some connection with the town of Khorāt; perhaps in olden times
pack-bullock caravans left for and arrived from Khorāt through this
gate, of which only two pillars are left. From this gate we ride
through dense jungle intersected with some few gardens to a place
called San Paulo, where some few remains are left of the tower
belonging to the church built by Phra Narai for the Jesuit fathers
and from here we regain our quarters. There are still some few
other places worth seeing, as for instance the tall phrachedi lying
on an island Goh Kēo just above the town, at the famous Tung
Thong Promathat, or some of the brick-built gates and bastions of
which Pratu Ghai on the Southern face of the city is a fine example.
I finally take the opportunity here to tender my heartiest thanks to
my friend Mr. J. J. McBeth, who took all the photographs illustrat-
ing this paper.

                                                                                        Erik Seidenfaden.



FileคำอธิบายFile sizeDownloadsLast modified
Download this file (vol 15 pt 2 page 66-77.pdf)vol 15 pt 2 page 66-77.pdf 3202 Kb12909/07/10 09:54




We have: 14 guests, 3 bots online
IP ของคุณ:
วันนี้: ๒๘ ก.ย. ๒๕๖๓