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    To develop the ethnic groups database where systematized research data are available online and can be made use of by interested parties or individuals, following the subjects or topics of their interests, and thus making it easier for them to sum up the essential points necessary for further in-depth studies. 


    S'gaw youth at Mowakee Chaingmai

    Less savings. Much to share.

    S'gaw's proverb
    Mowakee Chaingmai

    Salak Yom Festival
    Pratupha Temple

    Sea as Home of Urak Lawoi, Moken, Moklen

    Rawai beach Phuket Thailand


    Computer class of S'gaw students
    Mae La Noi , Maehongson

    Khaw Rai (Rice)
    produced from rotational farming
    Li Wo, Kanchanaburi


    S'gaw woman at Hin Lad Nai village

    Fermented Beans

    Important ingredient of Tai


    Phlong(Pwo) woman

    Li Wo village

    Boon Khaw Mai rite

    Phlong at Li Wo


    Little Prince of Tai

    Ordination in Summer of Tai boys


    Boys are ordained as novice monks

     Poi Sang Long is the tradition of the Tai. 

    Be novice monk to learn Buddhism


    Tai-art  mural painting of  Buddha 
    at Wat Chong Kam Chong Klang
    Maehongson Thailand

    Wat Chong-Kam, Chong Klang

    Hmong childs at Ban Kewkarn
  •   Smile

    Smile in problems
    Urak  Lawai at Rawai Phuket
  •   Hybrid




  Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Anthropology Centre
Ethnic Groups Research Database
Sorted by date | title


Subject Khmer Lue, Khmer, transnational migrants, beggars, society, crime, politics, Thailand, Cambodia
Author Saowalak Warayu
Title Transnational migrants: Life and community of Khmer beggars in Bangkok
Document Type Thesis Original Language of Text Thai
Ethnic Identity Khmer leu, Language and Linguistic Affiliations Austroasiatic
Location of
SirindhornAnthropology Center Total Pages 183 Year 2005
Source Faculty of Graduate Studies, Chiang Mai University

The thesis examined factors influencing Khmer beggars coming into Thailand, their living conditions, the begging careers of Khmer migrants, and beggar problems that caused Thailand over 200 million baht annually from exported remittances. It was found that of all the foreign beggars in the country, Khmer beggars were the most numerous. Most came voluntarily through brokers and settled in Bangkok in their own communities or resided with their friends to help one another.
However, bilateral assistance between Thailand and Cambodia has not been successful, because, when repatriated, they usually come back again. This is because begging can generate a good income and the beggars perceive that begging is an honest career and the income can improve their and their family’s living conditions.
From a survey conducted from October 1, 1999 to September 30, 2002, it was revealed that, of all 7,804 foreign beggars, Khmers accounted for 7,702 or 98.7%, followed by 94 Burmese (1.2%), seven Laotians (0.09%), and one Bangladeshi (0.01%). There were 4,167 adult Khmer beggars, divided into 3,464 females and 703 males, and 3,562 children, divided into 1,699 females and 1,863 males (p. 68).
Some Khmer child beggars came voluntarily while others were tricked into taking up the career. Many came from broken families or were orphaned. First-timers were brought into the country by brokers and worked under their supervision. They were from poor farming families doing hawking or being handymen for supplementary income. Child beggars also perceive that begging is an honest career, and a means to earn money to support their families in their homeland (pp. 86, 106). For illegal migrant beggars, they came voluntarily, paying their dues to brokers about 2,500 baht per person. Children might pay 1,000 baht per person and the brokers would take them to Bangkok (pp. 108-109). They could earn as much as 1,000 baht per day, whereas a domestic worker might earn around 1,000 baht to 2,500 baht per month, averaging 50 to 100 baht per day. However, a child beggar might earn approximately 6,000 baht a month (p. 88).
To provide assistance to Khmer beggars, the Thai government authorized the Department of Public Welfare to give shelters and psychological rehabilitation at a welfare house in Nothaburi Province before repatriation. Nevertheless, the problem was that these child beggars illegally returned to the country, because they had no one to turn to, owing to being orphaned or to being neglected by their parents. Additionally, begging could generate a large sum of money. Their supervisors or brokers also tried to smuggle them in. As for bilateral assistance attempts, meetings were held to find legal channels to help these beggars. Thailand also recommended that Cambodia train beggar returnees to work in agricultural careers, so that they were able to work in their community permanently. The two countries signed an agreement in 2003 on the prevention and solution to the problem of human trafficking. A Homeland Center was established in Phnom Penh to accommodate child beggar repartees. These returnees are provided with career training and education for one year. It is believed that this attempt might be able to solve child beggar problems in the long term and to reduce the number of Khmer beggars in Thailand (pp. 114-123).

Text Analyst Phumchai Kachamit Date of Report Apr 04, 2013
TAG Khmer Lue, Khmer, transnational migrants, beggars, society, crime, politics, Thailand, Cambodia, Translator Chalermchai Chaichomphu


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