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    To develop the ethnic groups database where systematized research data are available online and can be made use of by interested parties or individuals, following the subjects or topics of their interests, and thus making it easier for them to sum up the essential points necessary for further in-depth studies. 

    S'gaw youth at Mowakee Chaingmai

    Less savings. Much to share.

    S'gaw's proverb
    Mowakee Chaingmai

    Salak Yom Festival
    Pratupha Temple

    Sea as Home of Urak Lawoi, Moken, Moklen

    Rawai beach Phuket Thailand


    Computer class of S'gaw students
    Mae La Noi , Maehongson

    Khaw Rai (Rice)
    produced from rotational farming
    Li Wo, Kanchanaburi


    S'gaw woman at Hin Lad Nai village

    Fermented Beans

    Important ingredient of Tai


    Phlong(Pwo) woman

    Li Wo village

    Boon Khaw Mai rite

    Phlong at Li Wo


    Little Prince of Tai

    Ordination in Summer of Tai boys


    Boys are ordained as novice monks

     Poi Sang Long is the tradition of the Tai. 

    Be novice monk to learn Buddhism


    Tai-art  mural painting of  Buddha 
    at Wat Chong Kam Chong Klang
    Maehongson Thailand

    Wat Chong-Kam, Chong Klang

    Hmong childs at Ban Kewkarn
  •   Smile

    Smile in problems
    Urak  Lawai at Rawai Phuket
  •   Hybrid




  Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Anthropology Centre
Ethnic Groups Research Database
Sorted by date | title


Subject Hmong,White Hmong, Green Hmong, guardian and ancestors’ spirits, ritual expert, medium, gods, life after death, Feng Shui, directions and boundaries, Taoism, mythology, economic marginalization, self-sufficiency economy
Author Howard M. Radley : Corpus Christi College
Title Economic Marginalization And The Ethnic Consciousness Of The Green Hmong (Moob Ntsuab) Of Northwestern Thailand
Document Type Thesis Original Language of Text English
Ethnic Identity Hmong, Language and Linguistic Affiliations Hmong-Mien
Location of
Sirindhorn Anthropology Center Library Total Pages 472 Year 1986
Source The Institute of Social Anthropology, Faculty of Anthropology, Oxford University.

The thesis is concerned with a controversial change between the concepts of equality and stratum, which is unique in theory and practice for the Hmong. The so-called fluctuation between absolute power and democracy has been observed throughout the highlands of Southeast Asia. The author believes that, to understand the Hmong’s concepts, we must look at their historical relationships. Their worlds are divided into two parts: light and darkness. The classification is according to the differences between day time, which is about human beings, and night time, which is about the mystery of the spirit world. The first part of the work provides details of history and economic systems of three Hmong villages in Thailand. It examines the long history of contact with China and changes in the economic relationship with people in low-lying areas. The author expects to get a framework from the Hmong’s viewpoints. The second part looks at the world of spirits through the Hmong’s rituals, e.g., homage to their ancestors, funerals, mythology, and mediums. The author points out that the difference between a community of extended families and kin-related rituals and the individuality of the mediums and the access to the spiritual world signifies a change between personal needs of social equality and the needs to get a hierarchical government. The two worlds complement each other. The concept of the spiritual world would be translated to a state-like world of lowland people. The author believes that, for the Hmong to change themselves from an ethnic group relying on subsistence and agriculture with extended families being a minority group of perpetual losers to a group with their own government, there must be a civil war and turbulence in their society. Finally, the author argues that the existence of ethnic identity is not perceived separately from the wider social relationships. Furthermore, he also compares their ethnic consciousness with the consciousness of capitalist stratification (p. III).

Text Analyst Boonyong Praphatsornchaikul Date of Report Apr 19, 2021
TAG Hmong, White Hmong, Green Hmong, guardian and ancestors’ spirits, ritual expert, medium, gods, life after death, Feng Shui, directions and boundaries, Taoism, mythology, economic marginalization, self-sufficiency economy, Translator Chalermchai Chaichomphu


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