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  •   Background and Rationale

    To develop the ethnic groups database where systematized research data are available online and can be made use of by interested parties or individuals, following the subjects or topics of their interests, and thus making it easier for them to sum up the essential points necessary for further in-depth studies. 


    S'gaw youth at Mowakee Chaingmai

    Less savings. Much to share.

    S'gaw's proverb
    Mowakee Chaingmai

    Salak Yom Festival
    Pratupha Temple

    Sea as Home of Urak Lawoi, Moken, Moklen

    Rawai beach Phuket Thailand


    Computer class of S'gaw students
    Mae La Noi , Maehongson

    Khaw Rai (Rice)
    produced from rotational farming
    Li Wo, Kanchanaburi


    S'gaw woman at Hin Lad Nai village

    Fermented Beans

    Important ingredient of Tai


    Phlong(Pwo) woman

    Li Wo village

    Boon Khaw Mai rite

    Phlong at Li Wo


    Little Prince of Tai

    Ordination in Summer of Tai boys


    Boys are ordained as novice monks

     Poi Sang Long is the tradition of the Tai. 

    Be novice monk to learn Buddhism


    Tai-art  mural painting of  Buddha 
    at Wat Chong Kam Chong Klang
    Maehongson Thailand

    Wat Chong-Kam, Chong Klang

    Hmong childs at Ban Kewkarn
  •   Smile

    Smile in problems
    Urak  Lawai at Rawai Phuket
  •   Hybrid




  Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Anthropology Centre
Ethnic Groups Research Database
Sorted by date | title


Subject Akha, change, marginalization, Chiang Rai, northern region
Author Van Geusau, Leo A.
Title The Akha, The Years After in : Marginalisation in Thailand
Document Type Article Original Language of Text English
Ethnic Identity Akha, Language and Linguistic Affiliations Sino-Tibetan
Location of
Sirindhorn Anthropology Center Library Total Pages 7 Year 1992
Source Department of Geography in association with Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.

Changes and problems do not occur exclusively to the Akha but also to other highland ethnic groups. In 1992, the population of highlanders was over six million, but only ten percent was categorized as “hilltribes”. Changes occurring to Akha villages are due to state proclamations on forest management. Economic expansion, highland development, and road construction have brought about changes to the villages and neighboring areas. There are forest concessions, commercial crop cultivation, and progress from state development projects. The most important is that road construction has merged independent Akha communities into the macro-economic system and into the state administration. These processes have become factors causing the marginalization of highland ethnic groups. During the last decade, the livelihood of the Akha has not been easy as they are a minority group with lower status. Nevertheless, the group has survived and adjusted itself to deal with new situations. Helping one another and accepting new education and assistance from NGOs are factors in their adjustment to create new knowledge necessary for survival in the new urban society.

Text Analyst Chachadawan Kaewthaphaya Date of Report Aug. 01, 2006
TAG Akha, change, marginalization, Chiang Rai, northern region, Translator -


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