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    To develop the ethnic groups database where systematized research data are available online and can be made use of by interested parties or individuals, following the subjects or topics of their interests, and thus making it easier for them to sum up the essential points necessary for further in-depth studies. 


    S'gaw youth at Mowakee Chaingmai

    Less savings. Much to share.

    S'gaw's proverb
    Mowakee Chaingmai

    Salak Yom Festival
    Pratupha Temple

    Sea as Home of Urak Lawoi, Moken, Moklen

    Rawai beach Phuket Thailand


    Computer class of S'gaw students
    Mae La Noi , Maehongson

    Khaw Rai (Rice)
    produced from rotational farming
    Li Wo, Kanchanaburi


    S'gaw woman at Hin Lad Nai village

    Fermented Beans

    Important ingredient of Tai


    Phlong(Pwo) woman

    Li Wo village

    Boon Khaw Mai rite

    Phlong at Li Wo


    Little Prince of Tai

    Ordination in Summer of Tai boys


    Boys are ordained as novice monks

     Poi Sang Long is the tradition of the Tai. 

    Be novice monk to learn Buddhism


    Tai-art  mural painting of  Buddha 
    at Wat Chong Kam Chong Klang
    Maehongson Thailand

    Wat Chong-Kam, Chong Klang

    Hmong childs at Ban Kewkarn
  •   Smile

    Smile in problems
    Urak  Lawai at Rawai Phuket
  •   Hybrid




  Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Anthropology Centre
Ethnic Groups Research Database
Sorted by date | title


Subject Plang, migration to Thailand, women’s role in society, relationship between the migrants and their original communities, Yunnan Province, China
Author Zhang Jie
Title Genders and identity in the population migration system: Migration of Plang laborers from Yunnan Province, China, into Thailand
Document Type Thesis Original Language of Text -
Ethnic Identity Plang, Language and Linguistic Affiliations -
Location of
SirindhornAnthropology Center Total Pages - Year 2003
Source -

This thesis investigated migration and ethnic identity maintenance of Plang residents in Langzhai Village, Sipsongpanna Region, China, who migrated into Thailand. The data were collected by interviewing the villagers and migrant laborers in Bangkok. It was found that the migration into Thailand took place in three periods: during the battle between the Kuomintang Party and the Communist Party, during the Cultural Revolution and Land Reform, and after 1990. The main purpose of their migration was to earn more income for their families. The Plang preferred to migrate into Thailand rather than to other cities in China, because Thailand still needed more labor, the ethnic language is in the same family, and they are Theravada Buddhists like Thais. Furthermore, they could hardly speak Chinese and are not Mahayana Buddhists like the Chinese. To migrate into Thailand, they were assisted by middlemen who smuggled them into the country. The middlemen taught them basic Thai and found them jobs. The ethnic migrants in Bangkok formed into groups to participate in activities and to help one another like what they did in their village. Additionally, they symbolically expressed their culture to indicate their ethnicity from their village, such as group administration or wearing shirts with the symbol of the Chinese flag, even though they were not in the status to express themselves openly. The migrant laborers were both men and women. However, female laborers usually got unskilled jobs and were paid less than their male counterparts, thus obliging them to work overtime in order to send home as much money as they could. Some men often entertained themselves on weekends and were involved in illegal activities. Despite getting higher pay than women, they ended up sending less money home than the women did. In the past, villagers were able to produce enough rice for domestic consumption without extra money for disposal. After migrating to work in Thailand, they were able to buy electrical appliances and other equipment for personal comfort. Consequently, they liked to migrate to find work in Thailand even though they were illegal foreign migrants and had to escape from being arrested. Besides the above changes, migration negatively affected family relationship and couples. It was found that this economic migration had become a major cause of divorce in many families.

Text Analyst Korkanok Saringkhareeset Date of Report May 18, 2016
TAG Plang, migration to Thailand, women’s role in society, relationship between the migrants and their original communities, Yunnan Province, China, Translator -


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