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  •   Background and Rationale

    To develop the ethnic groups database where systematized research data are available online and can be made use of by interested parties or individuals, following the subjects or topics of their interests, and thus making it easier for them to sum up the essential points necessary for further in-depth studies. 

    S'gaw youth at Mowakee Chaingmai

    Less savings. Much to share.

    S'gaw's proverb
    Mowakee Chaingmai

    Salak Yom Festival
    Pratupha Temple

    Sea as Home of Urak Lawoi, Moken, Moklen

    Rawai beach Phuket Thailand


    Computer class of S'gaw students
    Mae La Noi , Maehongson

    Khaw Rai (Rice)
    produced from rotational farming
    Li Wo, Kanchanaburi


    S'gaw woman at Hin Lad Nai village

    Fermented Beans

    Important ingredient of Tai


    Phlong(Pwo) woman

    Li Wo village

    Boon Khaw Mai rite

    Phlong at Li Wo


    Little Prince of Tai

    Ordination in Summer of Tai boys


    Boys are ordained as novice monks

     Poi Sang Long is the tradition of the Tai. 

    Be novice monk to learn Buddhism


    Tai-art  mural painting of  Buddha 
    at Wat Chong Kam Chong Klang
    Maehongson Thailand

    Wat Chong-Kam, Chong Klang

    Hmong childs at Ban Kewkarn
  •   Smile

    Smile in problems
    Urak  Lawai at Rawai Phuket
  •   Hybrid




  Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Anthropology Centre
Ethnic Groups Research Database
Sorted by date | title


Subject Kayan, Kayah, Kareni, Bwe, Pow, Karen, Sgaw, language, linguistics, phonology
Author Ken Manson
Title The subgrouping of Karen
Document Type Article Original Language of Text English
Ethnic Identity Phlong Pwo, Paganyaw, Kayah, Karenni, Kayan, Language and Linguistic Affiliations Sino-Tibetan
Location of
Ken Manson.  “The subgrouping of Karen” Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistic Society. May 2011.  Total Pages 14 p. Year 2011
Source Ken Manson. “The subgrouping of Karen”, Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistic Society. May 2011.

          The article examined phonology and phonological development of the Karen in order to classify the ethnic language into subgroups.
          It is found that the language can be classified into four subgroups. The peripheral subgroup is composed of Pa'o and Pwo, having glottalized initial stops. The northern subgroup includes Kayan, Lahta, Yinbaw, and Yintale, having the merger of nasalized final sounds and the merger of the final consonants with long vowels. The central subgroup consists of Kayah, Bwe, and Geba, having more high vowels than other groups. The southern subgroup includes Sgaw, Luce's Paku, Palaychi, and Dermuha, having the merger of nasalized finals. 

Text Analyst Kornkanok Saringkhareeset Date of Report Apr 28, 2016
TAG , Translator Chalermchai Chaichomphu


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