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  •   Background and Rationale

    To develop the ethnic groups database where systematized research data are available online and can be made use of by interested parties or individuals, following the subjects or topics of their interests, and thus making it easier for them to sum up the essential points necessary for further in-depth studies. 


    S'gaw youth at Mowakee Chaingmai

    Less savings. Much to share.

    S'gaw's proverb
    Mowakee Chaingmai

    Salak Yom Festival
    Pratupha Temple

    Sea as Home of Urak Lawoi, Moken, Moklen

    Rawai beach Phuket Thailand


    Computer class of S'gaw students
    Mae La Noi , Maehongson

    Khaw Rai (Rice)
    produced from rotational farming
    Li Wo, Kanchanaburi


    S'gaw woman at Hin Lad Nai village

    Fermented Beans

    Important ingredient of Tai


    Phlong(Pwo) woman

    Li Wo village

    Boon Khaw Mai rite

    Phlong at Li Wo


    Little Prince of Tai

    Ordination in Summer of Tai boys


    Boys are ordained as novice monks

     Poi Sang Long is the tradition of the Tai. 

    Be novice monk to learn Buddhism


    Tai-art  mural painting of  Buddha 
    at Wat Chong Kam Chong Klang
    Maehongson Thailand

    Wat Chong-Kam, Chong Klang

    Hmong childs at Ban Kewkarn
  •   Smile

    Smile in problems
    Urak  Lawai at Rawai Phuket
  •   Hybrid




  Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Anthropology Centre
Ethnic Groups Research Database
Sorted by date | title


Subject Khamu, Ways of Life, Economic, Changes, Nan
Author Patrapee Khanthakarn
Title Changes in Productive System from Consumptive to Commercial and Their Effects on the Khamu Way of Life: A Case Study of Ban Phu Kam, Tambon Ngob, Amphoe Thungchang, Nan Province
Document Type Thesis Original Language of Text Thai
Ethnic Identity Khmu,Kammu, Tmooy, Language and Linguistic Affiliations Austroasiatic
Location of
Sirindhorn Anthropology Center Library Total Pages 151 Year 1989
Source Major in Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, Silapakorn University

In the study of Changes in the Productive System from Consumptive to Commercial and Their Effects on the Khamu Way of Life: A Case Study of Ban Phu Kam, Tambon Ngob, Amphoe Thungchang, Nan Province, it is found that there are 2 factors that cause changes in the productive system: the external factors are the influence of external marketing and economic system and transportation improvement, and the internal factors are pressure on land utilization and changes in ecological surroundings. These factors have pushed the Khamu in Ban Phu Kam to find solutions to the problems in the community with the cultivation of a new commercial crop which is orange. Because the revenue from the product makes the orange farmers have a higher economic status, the people in the community tend to cultivate more oranges. The results of orange cultivation are changes in the production system from a consumptive to a commercial system and the effect on the community is that the farmers have to be bound and dependent on the marketing system. The labour system has also changed; from the exchanging of labour or Au Mue (Au Rang), which has decreased, to the hiring of labour. There are also modern agricultural methods and, permanent land utilization along with shifting land utilization. As for beliefs, it is found that no beliefs are related to production as in the past because of the changes in production. Furthermore, commercial production is a factor that causes the relationships of the people in the community to fail because they do not have enough time to attend community activities, so it leads to misunderstandings among the members of the community and leads to social conflicts finally.

Text Analyst Khanittha Alangkorn Date of Report Jun 30, 2017
TAG Khamu, Ways of Life, Economic, Changes, Nan, Translator -


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